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Bontrager's Textbook of Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy, 10th Edition | Registered Nurse (RN) School Study Aid

Radiographic Positioning
25 Picmonics to Learn | 48 mins
Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space
Assessment
Sudden Dyspnea
Absent or Restricted Movement on Affected Side
Decreased or Absent Breath Sounds on Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tracheal Deviation
Vital Sign Changes
Crepitus
Considerations
High Fowler's Position With Oxygen
Prepare For Chest Tube Placement
Educate High Risk Patients
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2 mins
Pneumonia Assessment
Risk Factors
Older Adult
Immunocompromised
Long Term Care
Assessment
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Hypoxemia
Cough and Sputum Production
Wheezing or Crackles
Fever
Pleuritic Pain
Diagnosis
Chest X-ray
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2 mins
Pneumonia Intervention
Interventions
Humidified Oxygen
Deep Breathing Exercises
Position of Comfort
Increase Fluid Intake
Manage Fever
Medications
Antibiotics
Mucolytics
Expectorants
Considerations
Pneumococcal Vaccine
Sepsis
Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF)
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Asthma Assessment
Assessment
Triggers (Cold air, Dander, Dust, Infection, Mold, Pollen, Smoke)
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Tachypnea and Tachycardia
Wheezing
Diaphoresis
Accessory Muscles
Decreased Pulmonary Function Tests
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2 mins
COPD Overview (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview)
Causes
Inhaled Toxins
Smoking
AAT Deficiency
Assessment
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Considerations
Spirometry
Slow Progression
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Assessment
Cause
Damaged Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Assessment
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Refractory Hypoxemia
Decreased PaO2
Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates
Atelectasis
Pulmonary Hypertension
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Assessment
Clinical Findings
Chronic Productive Cough
> 3 Months for 2 Years
Increased Mucus Production
Dyspnea
Cyanosis
Wheezes
Complications
Right Side Heart Failure
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Interventions
Tripod Position
Humidified Oxygen
Pursed Lip Breathing
Increase Fluid Intake
ABGs
Early Detection of Exacerbation
Considerations
Lowest O2 Therapy
Assisted Ventilation
Increased Infection Risk
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Assessment
Thickened Mucus
Recurrent Pulmonary Infections
Pulmonary Congestion
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Steatorrhea
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies
Salty Taste to Skin
Meconium Ileus
Delayed Growth and Poor Weight Gain
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Interventions
Bronchodilators
N-Acetylcysteine (Mucolytics)
Inhaled Hypertonic Saline
Early Antibiotics
Dornase Alfa (Pulmozyme)
Postural Drainage with Percussion
Fat Soluble Vitamin Supplements
Pancreatic Enzymes with Every Meal
High Protein, High Calorie Diet
Added Dietary Salt
Glucose Monitoring
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2 mins
Light's Criteria
Use
Determines Transudative vs. Exudative Source of Pleural Effusion
Exudate if (At Least One of the Following):
Effusion/Serum Protein Ratio > 0.5
Effusion/Serum LDH Ratio > 0.6
Effusion LDH > Two-thirds Upper Serum LDH Range
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2 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
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1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Assessment
Assessment
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Tachypnea
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Considerations
Sudden Death
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52 secs
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Characteristics
Characteristics
Mycolic Acid Cell Wall
Acid-fast
Carbolfuchsin Stain Red
Lowenstein-Jensen Agar
Serpentine Cord Factor
Primary TB
Primary TB
Caseating Granuloma
Ghon Focus
Hilar Lymph Nodes
Ghon Complex
Reactivation TB
Reactivation TB
Reactivation in Apex
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3 mins
Tuberculosis Assessment
Etiology
Airborne Droplet
Assessment
3 Week Productive Cough
Night Sweats
Chest Pain
Fever
Weight Loss
Fatigue
Diagnosis
Chest X-Ray
Blood Tests
Mantoux Skin Test
3 Positive Sputum Tests
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1 min
Tuberculosis Intervention
Hospital Care
Airborne Isolation
Drug Therapy
Combination Drug Therapy (RIPE)
6-12 Months
Considerations
DOT
BCG Vaccination
Medication Education
3 Negative Sputum Specimens
Infection Control
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2 mins
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Disease
CONSTITUTIONAL SYMPTOMS/PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Fever
Night Sweats
Weight Loss
Hemoptysis
EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Extrapulmonary Disease
Addison's Disease
CNS
Liver
Kidneys
GI
Bones
Pott's Disease
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3 mins
Tuberculosis Skin Mantoux Test (PPD)
Delayed Hypersensitivity (Cell Mediated Response)
Intradermal Injection
Read 48-72 hours
Positive Results
≥ 5 mm Induration
Immunosuppressed
≥ 10 mm Induration
High Risk Patients
≥ 15 mm Induration
Considerations
Chest X-Ray
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3 mins
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Most Common Lung Cancer
Most Common in Nonsmokers
Peripheral Location
KRAS, EGFR, and ALK Mutations
Diagnosis
Glandular Pattern
Often Stains with Mucin
Clinical Features
Presents with Hemoptysis
Clubbing
Treatment
Surgical Resection
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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2 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Strong Correlation with Smoking
More Common in Men
Central Location
Cavitating Lesion Extending to Hilum
PTHrP causes Hypercalcemia
Diagnosis
Keratin Pearls
Intercellular Bridges
Treatment
Surgical Resection (if Early Stage)
Chemotherapy and Radiation (if Later Stage)
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2 mins
Lung Cancer Assessment
2nd Most Common Cancer
Assessment
Chronic Cough
Hoarseness
Abnormal Breath Sounds
Hemoptysis
Chest Pain
Anorexia or Weight Loss
Considerations
Symptoms Appear Late in Disease
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2 mins
Restrictive vs. Obstructive Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Disease
Decreased Lung Volume
FEV1/FVC Ratio Normal to Increased
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Volume
Decreased FEV1/FVC Ratio
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2 mins
Small Cell (Oat Cell) Carcinoma
Characteristics
Aggressively Malignant
Strong Correlation with Smoking
Central Location
Amplification of myc Oncogenes
Signs and Symptoms
Narrowing of Bronchial Airways
Cushing's Syndrome
Ectopic ACTH
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Diagnosis
Kulchitsky Cells
Neuron-Specific Enolase Positive
Chromogranin A Positive
Treatment
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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3 mins
Emphysema
Mechanism
Hyperinflation and Loss of Elasticity
Assessment
Pursed Lip Breathing
Barrel Chest
Dyspnea on Exertion
Clubbing
Depression and Anxiety
Thin Appearance
Nursing Considerations
CO2 Retention
Low Concentration of O2
High Fowler's Position
High Calorie, High Protein Diet
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2 mins

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