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Medicine (MD/DO)
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First Aid
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2022)
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2022) | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Page 356 -
5 Picmonics to Learn | 16 mins
Hyperaldosteronism Overview
Mechanism
Adrenal Glands
Increased Aldosterone
Aldosterone Escape Mechanism
Clinical Findings
No Significant Edema
Hypertension
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
Types
Primary Hyperaldosteronism
Secondary Hyperaldosteronism
Pseudohyperaldosteronism
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3 mins
Primary Hyperaldosteronism
Etiology
Increased Aldosterone Secretion
Adrenal Adenoma
Bilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia
Clinical Features
Hypertension
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
No Significant Edema
Diagnosis
Increased Aldosterone
Decreased Renin
Abdominal CT Scan
Management
Aldosterone Antagonists
Surgery
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3 mins
Secondary Hyperaldosteronism
Etiologies
Renal Artery Stenosis
Reninoma
Chronic Disease of Liver, Kidney, or Heart
Clinical Features
Edema
Hypertension
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
Diagnosis
Increased Aldosterone
Increased Renin
Treatment
Treat Underlying Disorder
Aldosterone Antagonists
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3 mins
Neuroblastoma Characteristics and Presentation
Characteristics
Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumor
Neural Crest Cells Origin
Sympathetic Ganglia
Adrenal Glands
Amplification of N-myc Oncogene
Most Common Cancer In Infancy
Clinical Presentation
Abdominal Mass That Can Cross Midline
Gastrointestinal Distress
Metastasis
Raccoon Eyes
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome
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4 mins
Neuroblastoma Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
24-hour Urine Test
Increased Catecholamines
Homovanillic and Vanillylmandelic Acid
Ultrasound
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Biopsy
Pathology
Small Round Blue Cells
Homer-Wright Rosettes
Bombesin Positive
Neuron Specific Enolase Positive
Interventions
Local Excision
Chemotherapy
Radiation
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4 mins

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