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Pharmacology Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Antivirals
15 Picmonics to Learn | 23 mins

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Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Mechanism
Guanosine Analog
Inhibits Viral Replication
Thymidine Kinase Activation
Indications
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
Side Effects (Oral)
Headache
GI Distress
Side Effects (IV)
CNS Toxicity
Nephrotoxicity (Crystalline Nephropathy)
Considerations
Prevents Recurrent Episodes
Slow IV infusion
2 mins
Ganciclovir
Indications
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Immunocompromised
Mechanism
Guanosine Analog
Disrupts DNA Synthesis
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Hematologic Effects
Nephrotoxicity
1 min
Foscarnet
Indications
CMV Retinitis
Acyclovir-resistant HSV
Mechanism
Does not require activation (by viral kinase)
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Pyrophosphate Analog
Resistance through Mutated DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Electrolyte Abnormalities
Hypokalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
1 min
Fusion Inhibitors
Indications
HIV
Drugs
Maraviroc
Binds CCR-5 on T Cells
Blocks Interaction with gp120
Enfuvirtide
Binds gp41
Inhibits Viral Entry
Side Effects
Skin Reactions at Injection Sites (Enfuvirtide)
1 min
Protease Inhibitors
End in "-navir"
Indications
HIV/AIDS
Hepatitis C
Mechanism
Inhibit Protease
Unable to Cleave Proteins
Inhibits Maturation of New Virus
Side Effects
GI Distress
Nephropathy
Lipodystrophy
Hyperglycemia
2 mins
Integrase Inhibitors
-gravir Suffix
Indications
HIV
Mechanism
Blocks Insertion of Viral Genome
Inhibit Actions of Integrase
Side Effects
Hypercholesterolemia
Increased LFT's
Insomnia
Increased Creatine Kinase (CK)
1 min
NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Mechanism
Do Not Require Intracellular Metabolism
Inhibits Reverse Transcriptase
Side Effects
Rash
Hepatotoxicity
Vivid Dreams and CNS Symptoms
Contraindication
Pregnancy
1 min
NNRTI Drug Names
Nevirapine (Viramune)
Rilpivirine (Edurant)
Delavirdine (DLV, Rescriptor)
Efavirenz (EFV, Sustiva)
Etravirine (ETR, Intelence)
54 secs
NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Pregnancy and Prophylaxis given ZDV
Mechanism
Inhibit Nucleotide Binding to Reverse Transcriptase
Chain Termination
Require Phosphorylation
1 min
NRTIs for HIV (Drug Names)
Nucleoside Analog
DEALSZ
Didanosine (DDI)
Emtricitabine (FTC)
Abacavir (ABC)
Lamivudine (3TC)
Stavudine (d4T)
Zidovudine (ZDV)
Nucleotide Analog
Tenofovir (TDF)
1 min
NRTI Toxicity
Bone Marrow Suppression
Reverse with G-CSF and Erythropoietin
Rash
Neuropathy
Anemia
Pancreatitis
Lactic Acidosis
1 min
Cidofovir
Indications
CMV Retinitis
Acyclovir-resistant HSV
Mechanism
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Administer with Probenecid and IV Saline
1 min
HAART
HIV
Begin at Diagnosis
3 Drugs
2 NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
And one of the following:
NNRTI (Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor)
or Protease Inhibitor
or Integrase Inhibitor
1 min
Ribavirin
Mechanism
Hypermutation in RNA Viruses
Inhibits Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase
Indications
Hepatitis C
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Side Effects
Hemolytic Anemia
Teratogen
1 min
Zanamivir (Relenza) and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
Indications
Influenza A and B
Treatment and Prophylaxis
Mechanism
Inhibits Release of New Virus
Inhibits Influenza Neuraminidase
1 min

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