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Dactinomycin (Actinomycin D)

Dracula-mice
Picmonic
Dactinomycin, or actinomycin D, is an antitumor antibiotic used to treat childhood tumors. It is indicated for use against Wilms tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and gestational trophoblastic malignancy. It works by intercalating DNA, halting the replication process in tumors. A common side effect of this drug is myelosuppression.
6 KEY FACTS
INDICATIONS
Wilms' Tumor
Willy-Wonkey Tumor

Dactinomycin is indicated to treat Wilms' tumor, or nephroblastoma, which is a childhood tumor of the kidneys.

Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rabbi-shark-comb

Dactinomycin can be used in conjunction with radiation therapy to treat rhabdomyosarcoma, which is sarcoma of the connective tissues. These can be found in any location in the body, and typically affect anatomical areas lacking skeletal muscle, like the head, neck and GU tract.

Ewing's Sarcoma
Earring-shark-comb

Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone cancer that effects teenagers and young adults. This can be treated with neoadjuvant therapy, where dactinomycin is combined with radiation therapy.

Gestational Trophoblastic Malignancy
Pregnant Trophy-blast Malignant-man

This medication can be used to treat gestational trophoblastic malignancy, such as malignant hydatidiform moles.

MECHANISM
Intercalates DNA
Inner-cleates DNA

This drug works by intercalating DNA, effectively inhibiting its transcription. It does so by binding to the DNA transcription initiation complex, preventing RNA chain elongation. Dactinomycin "gets in the way," physically blocking DNA replication.

SIDE EFFECT
Myelosuppression
Suppressed Red and White blood cells

The most common side effect of dactinomycin use is myelosuppression, leading to decreased red and white blood cell production.

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