Patients must display either a temperature below 36° C or above 38° C.
Though it is not classified as tachycardia, patients with a heart rate greater than 90 beats per minutes (bpm) fit this part of the SIRS criteria.
Patients must be either tachypneic, with a respiratory rate greater than 20, or must have an arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide less than 32.
Another manifestation of SIRS is that patients have leukocytes below 4,000 cells/mm3 or above 12,000 cells/mm3 or greater than 10% bands (immature neutrophils), which is called left shift.
SIRS is a subset of cytokine storm, where there is abnormal regulation of various cytokines. Furthermore, it is related to sepsis, an illness which fulfills the SIRS criteria, and is related to infection.
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