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Sarcoidosis Characteristics and Labs

Shark-koi-fish with characteristics and labs
Picmonic
Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas throughout the body. It is characterized by lab findings such as increased levels of ACE, and asteroid bodies. Due to vitamin D activation, hypercalcemia is present. This disease is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed after finding bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on routine x-ray.
9 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM
Unknown Mechanism
Question-mark Mechanism

The etiology of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it is known that it is a disease of disordered immune regulation.

Immune-mediated
Moon Mediator

There are several immunological abnormalities which suggest the development of a cell-mediated response to an unidentified antigen, driven by CD4+ helper T cells. Thus, sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated disorder.

Noncaseating granulomas
Nun-cheese-eating Granny-llama

This disease leads to noncaseating (hard) granulomas in many tissues and organs. These are typically composed of clustered aggregated epithelioid cells, often with Langhans or foreign body-type giant cells.

Vitamin D activation
Viking Daisy Activated

Within macrophages, 1α-hydroxylase-mediated Vitamin D activation occurs. Thus, patients often show lab values correlating with increased Vitamin D.

LABS
Hypercalcemia
Hiker-calcium-cow

Due to vitamin D activation, calcium absorption is increased in the gut and patients show serum hypercalcemia.

Elevated ACE
Up-arrow Ace

Sarcoidal granulomas produce ACE, and patients with this disease display elevated serum ACE levels.

Asteroid bodies
Asteroid

Asteroid bodies, which are formed from lipids arranged in bilayer membranes, are microscopic findings found in the granulomas of sarcoidosis.

X-Ray shows Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
X-ray Shows Bi-ladder Hitlers with Lymph-lime-add

Often an incidental finding, patient chest x-rays show bilateral hilar adenopathy, and sometimes reticular opacities.

TREATMENT
Corticosteroids
Quarter-on-steroids

Corticosteroids have been the standard of treatment for many years and have been shown to slow or reverse the course of this disease.

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