Obstructive lung disease is characterized by blocked airflow, resulting in air trapping.
This means the volume of air left in the lungs after full exhalation increases. These patients trap air in their lungs over time.
Obstructive lung disease often results in V/Q mismatch. A decreased V/Q ratio is seen because of a decrease in the amount of air reaching the alveoli.
Forced vital capacity is the volume of air that can be forcibly blown out after one full inspiration.
FEV1 is the forced expiratory volume in 1 second or the volume of air that can be forcibly blown out in 1 second. Decreased FEV1/FVC indicates that the patient cannot get rid of the air in the lungs as quickly due to the obstruction. Although FVC decreases, there is a larger decrease in FEV1, resulting in a drop in the overall FEV1/FVC ratio.
Asthma is an obstructive lung disease caused by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, leading to bronchoconstriction and inflammation.
Bronchiectasis is a type of obstructive lung disease that is caused by chronic infection of bronchi, resulting in dilated airways.
Chronic bronchitis is a type of obstructive lung disease in which there is hypertrophy of mucus-secreting glands, leading to chronic productive cough.
Emphysema is a type of obstructive lung disease caused by the destruction of the alveolar walls and loss of elastic fibers.This leads to increased lung compliance and decreased recoil.
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