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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Disease

Bunny Plum with Hiker-plates Mechanisms
Picmonic
BPH is characterized by increased epithelial cells and stromal components of the lateral and middle glands of the prostate. It can lead to compression of the urethra and various urinary manifestations.
10 KEY FACTS
MECHANISM AND CHARACTERISTICS
DHT-induced Growth Factors
Dye Hydra Testes-stereo using Growth Factor fertilizer

It is believed that DHT-induced growth factors may contribute to increased growth of the prostate. The mechanism for BPH is incompletely understood.

Common in Men > 50 Years Old
Greater Than old (50) Cent

BPH is more common with age, and usually occurs in men greater than age 50.

Smooth, Symmetric, Firm Enlargement
Smoothie from Symmetrical and Firm prostate-plums

Smooth, symmetric, firm enlargement of the prostate is found on digital rectal exam (DRE). This is in contrast to prostate cancer where the prostate is nodular and asymmetrically enlarged.

Affects Lateral and Middle (Periurethral) Gland
Ladder and Middle Pear-U-wreath Glands

The area of the prostate surrounding the urethra is affected in BPH. These are the lateral and middle lobes of the prostate gland.

Urethra Compression
U-wreath urethra being Compressed

Because the periurethral zone is affected, it can compress the urethra and lead to urinary symptoms.

SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS
Increased Urinary Frequency
Up-arrow Urine Frequency-wave

Compression of the urethra can lead to increased urinary frequency in patients.

Nocturia
Nocturnal-moon-urine

Compression of the urethra can also lead to nocturia, which is the need to void at night.

Dysuria
Urine-in-flames

Patients often complain of pain on urination, or dysuria, due to compression of the urethra.

Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary-tract-on-fire

Compression and obstruction of the urethra can be a nidus for infection.

Hydronephrosis
Water-in-kidney

Complete obstruction of the urethra can in some instances lead to hydronephrosis and renal failure.

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