It is believed that DHT-induced growth factors may contribute to increased growth of the prostate. The mechanism for BPH is incompletely understood.
BPH is more common with age, and usually occurs in men greater than age 50.
Smooth, symmetric, firm enlargement of the prostate is found on digital rectal exam (DRE). This is in contrast to prostate cancer where the prostate is nodular and asymmetrically enlarged.
The area of the prostate surrounding the urethra is affected in BPH. These are the lateral and middle lobes of the prostate gland.
Because the periurethral zone is affected, it can compress the urethra and lead to urinary symptoms.
Compression of the urethra can lead to increased urinary frequency in patients.
Compression of the urethra can also lead to nocturia, which is the need to void at night.
Patients often complain of pain on urination, or dysuria, due to compression of the urethra.
Compression and obstruction of the urethra can be a nidus for infection.
Complete obstruction of the urethra can in some instances lead to hydronephrosis and renal failure.
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