This malignant type of ovarian tumor is equivalent to a male seminoma, but much more rare.
Dysgerminomas are the most common malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Still, it accounts for only 1-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors. Dysgerminoma occurs mainly in children and young women. (3-5) The average age is 22 years, and 90 percent of patients are less than 30 years of age.
Dysgerminoma tumors present with sheets of uniform cells that are similar to primordial germ cells.
Histological examination of dysgerminomas shows a cluster of fried egg cells and lymphocytes.
Occasionally, dysgerminomas may become infiltrated with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells, which produce beta-hCG.
Both elevated hCG and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) are effective tumor markers for dysgerminoma.
Dysgerminoma is the ovarian equivalent to seminomas, found in males. The gross and microscopic features of dysgerminomas are similar to those of seminomas.
Risk factors for dysgerminoma include Turner syndrome and pseudohermaphrodites.
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