Master Nephritic Syndrome with Picmonic for Medicine

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Nephritic Syndrome

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Nephritic syndrome can be caused by several diseases including Berger’s disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.  It is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli and commonly causes hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, and less than 3.5 grams per day of proteinuria.  Patients with nephritic syndrome also commonly present with red cell casts in the urine and azotemia, which is a medical condition characterized by abnormal amounts of nitrogen products in the body.
7 KEY FACTS
Inflammatory
In-flames

Nephritic syndromes are characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli.

Hematuria
Red-urinal

Nephritic syndrome is characterized by hematuria, or blood in the urine, caused by damage to renal glomeruli due to inflammation.

RBC casts
Red Blood Cell in a Cast

RBC casts are groups of RBCs which have been trapped in the kidney and morphed to form a clump of cells. Casts indicate intra-renal pathology which helps differentiate nephritic syndrome from post-renal disease processes which can cause hematuria.

Increased Nitrogen in blood
Up-arrows from Nitrous-tank-gems

Azotemia is a medical condition which is defined by abnormal amounts of nitrogen products in the blood. This is usually caused by kidney dysfunction because the kidney is responsible for ridding the body of nitrogen waste products.

Oliguria
Old-gopher

Oliguria is low urine output which usually indicates kidney damage or hypovolemia. Oliguira is commonly seen in individuals with nephritic syndrome.

Hypertension
Hiker-BP

Hypertension refers to elevated blood pressure which is a necessary finding for the diagnosis of nephritic syndrome.

Proteinuria < 3.5 grams per day
Protein-urinal beneath (3) Tree with 0.5 tag

Proteinuria and edema are common findings in nephritic syndrome although not as severe as those encountered in nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria of <3.5 g/day is a diagnostic criteria for diagnosing nephritic syndrome and values above 3.5 grams per day is generally referred to as nephrotic syndrome.

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