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Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)

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Berger’s disease is a nephritic kidney disease, also known as IgA glomerulopathy, that is characterized by the presence of IgA deposits in the mesangium of the kidneys, which can be detected via immunofluorescence microscopy and light microscopy. Berger’s disease is a common cause of recurrent gross or microscopic hematuria and is the most common cause of nephritic syndrome. IgA nephropathy can present as an isolated renal disease but similar IgA deposits are present in the systemic disorder Henoch Schonlein purpura. Henoch Schonelin purpura affects children and has many overlapping features with IgA nephropathy. This disease can affect people of any age but older children and young adults are most often affected. Common presentation of disease is gross hematuria after an upper respiratory infection or less commonly an acute gastroenteritis. While some patients present with only microscopic hematuria, a fraction develop a typical acute nephritic syndrome. The hematuria typically lasts for several days and then subsides and can reoccur. The clinical course is highly variable. Many patients maintain normal renal function for several decades but slow progression to renal failure can occur over a period of 20 years. 
7 KEY FACTS
Nephritic
Nerd-cricket

Nephritic syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli and is a set of symptoms which include hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, and less than 3.5 grams per day of proteinuria. Patients with nephritic syndrome also commonly present with red cell casts in the urine and azotemia. Nephritic syndrome can be caused by several diseases including Berger's disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

IgA Nephropathy
(IgA) Apple-goblin with Kidney

IgA nephropathy is an alternative name for Berger's disease and draws from the increased synthesis of immunoglobulin A involved in the pathogenesis.

Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Immune Complexes on Maze-angel

Berger's disease is a nephritic kidney disease, also known as IgA glomerulopathy, that is characterized by the presence of IgA deposits in the mesangium of the kidneys, which can be detected via immunofluorescence microscopy and light microscopy.

Increased Synthesis of IgA
Up-arrow Apple-goblin

In patients with IgA nephropathy, levels of plasma IgA are increased and there is prominent deposition of IgA immune complexes in the mesangium.

Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
#1 Foam-finger

Berger's disease is a common cause of recurrent gross or microscopic hematuria and is the most common cause of nephritic syndrome in the developed world.

Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Hen on Shaolin-monk

Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by deposition of IgA immune complexes in skin and other organs including joints, GI tract, and kidney. The renal manifestations are nephritic and resemble Berger's disease.

Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
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Berger's disease commonly presents as gross hematuria after an upper respiratory infection or less commonly an acute gastroenteritis.

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