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Adult T Cell Lymphoma

Adults playing with Tennis-ball Lime-foam
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Adult T cell lymphomas are neoplasms of CD4+ T cells only observed in adults that have been infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). The tumor cells contain clonal HTLV-1 provirus, which is thought to play a critical pathogenic role and the virus also encodes a protein called Tax that is a potent NF-KB activator, which enhances lymphocyte growth and survival. These cancers occur mainly in regions where HTLV-1 is endemic including southern Japan, West African and the Caribbeans. Common findings include cutaneous lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and occasionally hypercalcemia. Typically, this neoplasm has an aggressive course. Most patients present with rapidly progressive disease that can be fatal within months to a year of diagnosis despite aggressive chemotherapy. However, the tumor may only involve the skin and can follow a much more indolent course. 
4 KEY FACTS
Caused by HTLV 1
Virus HTLV 1

Adult T cell lymphomas are neoplasms of CD4 positive T cells only observed in adults that have been infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV 1). The tumor cells contain clonal HTLV 1 provirus, which is thought to play a critical pathogenic role and the virus also encodes a protein called Tax that is a potent NF KB activator, which enhances lymphocyte growth and survival.

Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
Japanese and African guys on Caribbean-island

These cancers occur mainly in regions where HTLV-1 is endemic including southern Japan, West Africa, and the Caribbeans.

Present with cutaneous lesions
Naked-man with Skin Lesions

Most individuals with Adult T cell lymphoma present with skin lesions and may also have generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and hypercalcemia. Sometimes, the tumor may only involve the skin and can follow a much more indolent course.

Aggressive
Aggressive-expression

Typically, this neoplasm has an aggressive course. Most patients present with rapidly progressive disease that can be fatal within months to a year of diagnosis despite aggressive chemotherapy.

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