Osteosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the bone, and usually presents in boys between the ages of 10-20. There are several risk factors which contribute to disease development, including patients with a history of Paget’s disease, history of bone infarcts, radiation exposure and familial retinoblastoma history. The cancer classically presents in the knee and in the metaphysis of the bone. The appearance of the cancer is described as a sunburst appearance, due to elevation of the periosteum. This disease carries a grave prognosis.
Osteogenic sarcoma is the alternative name.
This disease most often occurs in males 10-20 years old.
This tumor is classically found in the metaphysis of long bones. This region is responsible for the growth and expansion of long bones.
This tumor is most often found in the knee.
Radiation is a risk factor for developing this cancer.
Familial retinoblastoma is caused by an abnormality in the tumor suppressor gene RB1, which subsequently leads to a predisposition for the development of multiple malignancies, including osteosarcoma.
Paget's disease is a skeletal disease in which patients have a net gain in bone mass. It is a risk factor for developing osteosarcoma. This usually occurs in older patients, as opposed to the normal epidemiologic age group of osteogenic sarcoma.
Codman triangle is the description of the elevation of the periosteum caused by the cancer growth seen on imaging. The growth creates a triangular area.
The elevated periosteum is also classically described as a sunburst pattern on imaging, which can help with identification.
The cancer is malignant and has a poor prognosis.
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