Master Plasmodium Specific with Picmonic for Medicine

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing.

Plasmodium Specific

Plastic-podium
Picmonic
Plasmodium is a parasitic protozoa that causes the disease malaria. Malaria is a mosquito-borne illness that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions across Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these regions. There are several species of Plasmodium that cause disease including P. malariae, P. vivax and ovale, and P. falciparum. P. falciparum causes the most severe symptoms. Vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum while P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a milder form that is rarely fatal. The classic symptom of cyclical fever and chills associated with malaria occurs every 2 days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections and every three days for P. malariae. P. falciparum however can cause daily cycles of fever that is almost continuous. Plasmodium falciparum can also cause the surface properties of infected red blood cells to change, causing them to adhere to blood vessels. This causes obstruction of the microcirculation and can occlude capillaries in the brain, kidney, and lungs. Plasmodium vivax and ovale are associated with persistent liver stages that allow relapse up to five years after elimination of the erythrocytic stage that can be treated with the addition of primaquine. Plasmodium vivax is also associated with the Duffy antigen, which is a receptor located on the surface of red blood cells that is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax. It is thought that the black population has a higher percentage of individuals missing the Duffy antigen, thus conferring resistance to this form of malaria.
11 KEY FACTS
Malariae
Mullet-mosquito

The species Plasmodium malariae causes a milder form of disease as compared to falciparum. This species is associated with a cyclical fever that occurs every 3 days. Asymptomatic infection can persist for years.

Fever Every Three Days
Fever-beaver and (3) Tree

The species Plasmodium malariae causes a milder form of disease as compared to falciparum. This species is associated with a cyclical fever that occurs every 3 days.

Vivax/Ovale
Violin Oval

These species of Plasmodium cause a milder form of disease as compared to falciparum. This species is associated with a cyclic fever that occurs every 2 days and is also associated with persistent liver stages that allow relapse up to five years after elimination of the erythrocytic stage.

Fever Every Two Days
Fever-beaver in (2) Tutu

These species of Plasmodium cause a milder form of disease as compared to falciparum. This species is associated with a cyclic fever that occurs every 2 days.

Duffy Antigen Binding Site
Duffle-bag Ant-gem

The Duffy antigen is a protein located on the surface of red blood cells and is a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. This receptor is also the receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Therefore, individuals whose erythrocytes do not express the receptor are believed to be more resistant to this form of malaria.

Duffy often absent in Black Population
Duffle-bag with White-ant

The Duffy antigen is a protein located on the surface of red blood cells and is a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. This receptor is also the receptor for Plasmodium vivax. It is thought the black population has a higher percentage of individuals missing the duffy antigen, thus conferring resistance to this form of malaria. Infection is still possible, however.

Primaquine treats dormant form in liver
Prom-queen smacking Dozing Liver

Plasmodium vivax and ovale is associated with persistent liver stages that allow relapse up to five years after elimination of the erythrocytic stage of disease. The dormant form in the liver can be treated with the addition of primaquine, which treats liver hypnozoites. 

Falciparum
Faucet

Plasmodium falciparum is a species of Plasmodium that causes the most severe symptoms. Vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum while P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a milder form that is rarely fatal.

Most severe
On fire

Plasmodium falciparum is a species of Plasmodium that causes the most severe symptoms. Vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum while P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a milder form that is rarely fatal.

Irregular Cycles
Irregular Circle

The classic symptom of cyclical fever and chills associated with malaria occurs every 2 days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections and every three days for P. malariae. P. falciparum however, greatly varies in its paroxysms. Often, there is no distinct periodicity, but hovers around 48h. Of the Plasmodium strains, falciparum has the most unpredictable fever course.

Occludes capillaries in the brain, kidneys, and lungs
Caterpillar, Brain, Kidneys, and Lungs

Plasmodium falciparum can cause the surface properties of infected red blood cells to change, causing them to adhere to blood vessels. This causes obstruction of the microcirculation and can occlude capillaries in the brain, kidney, and lungs.

Unlock all 11 facts & definitions with Picmonic Free!

JOIN FREE

Take the Plasmodium Specific Quiz

Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.

START QUIZ NOW

It's worth every penny

Our Story Mnemonics Increase Mastery and Retention

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)

Ace Your Medical (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 870,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medical (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medical (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medical (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.