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Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) (OLD VERSION) (OLD VERSION)

Viking Bee (6) sax

Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin that is activated to the form pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many reactions in body. This cofactor is used in multiple reactions of amino acid metabolism, including transamination and decarboxylation. Pyridoxal phosphate is also necessary for glycogen phosphorylase, cystathionine synthesis, heme synthesis, and the conversion of tryptophan to niacin. Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause low activity of these enzymes and lead to symptoms of hyperirritability, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and sideroblastic anemia. 

Pyridoxal Phosphate
Pirate-duck with Phosphate-Ps

Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin that is activated to the form pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many reactions in body.


Transamination refers to a reaction between an amino acid, which contains an amine (NH2) group and a keto acid, which contains a keto (=O) group. In this reaction, the NH2 group on one molecule is exchanged with the keto group on the other. Pyridoxal phosphate is an important cofactor in transamination reactions, which play an essential role in providing amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis.

(D) Dog in Cardboard-box with lace

Decarboxylation reactions refer to reactions in which a carbon is removed from a carbon chain, typically released as carbon dioxide. Vitamin B6 is an important cofactor in decarboxylation reactions.

Glycogen phosphorylase
Glider with Phosphate-P-lace

Vitamin B6 is required as a coenzyme for the reaction glycogen phosphorylase, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in glycogenolysis. This reaction releases Glucose -1-phosphate molecules from glycogen.

Cystathionine Synthase
Sisters-with-thimbles and Synthase

This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to cystathionine and uses the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate.

Heme synthesis
(Heme) ham

Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor for the enzyme ALA synthase in the heme synthesis pathway.

Synthesis of Niacin

Vitamin B6 is required for the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin. A vitamin B6 deficiency can impair this conversion and lead to niacin deficiency in the body.

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