Antipsychotic drugs are primarily indicated for schizophrenia to treat its positive symptoms. Antipsychotics are also indicated for psychosis and mania.
Fluphenazine is used to treat Tourette's syndrome, an inherited neuropsychiatric disease characterized by motor tics and phonic tics.
Antipsychotics are highly lipid-soluble and are stored in the body fat. They are very slowly removed from the body and are considered to have a long half-life.
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine D2 receptors in the mesolimbic and mesocortical areas of the CNS. This leads to an increase of the intracellular concentration of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Galactorrhea is an endocrine side effect related to dopamine antagonism. Patients typically have spontaneous outflow of milk from the breasts due to hyperprolactinemia stemming from dopamine antagonism.
Tardive dyskinesia is a common extrapyramidal side effect seen in patients with long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Lip-smacking is a type of tardive dyskinesia seen in patients taking these drugs.
Antipsychotic drugs also block cholinergic receptors, leading to antimuscarinic effects. Patients can suffer from anticholinergic effects, such as dry mouth and constipation.
These drugs display alpha1 blockade effects, sometimes leading to hypotension.
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