Ace Your Respiratory System Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

Respiratory System | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


Prev
Respiratory Disorders
39 Picmonics to Learn | 1 hr 16 mins

Next
Restrictive vs. Obstructive Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Disease
Decreased Lung Volume
FEV1/FVC Ratio Normal to Increased
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Volume
Decreased FEV1/FVC Ratio
2 mins
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Poor Breathing Mechanics
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Sarcoidosis
Pneumoconiosis
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Drug Toxicity
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
2 mins
Obstructive Lung Disease
Blocked Airflow
Increased residual volume
V/Q Mismatch
Decreased forced vital capacity (FVC)
Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio
Asthma
Bronchiectasis
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
51 secs
COPD Overview (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview)
Causes
Inhaled Toxins
Smoking
AAT Deficiency
Assessment
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Considerations
Spirometry
Slow Progression
2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis
Pathophysiology
Chronic Inflammation of Bronchi
Signs and Symptoms
Early-Onset Cyanosis
Blue Bloaters
Productive Cough
Wheezing
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Late-Onset Dyspnea
Crackles
Diagnosis
Reid Index > 50%
2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Interventions
Tripod Position
Humidified Oxygen
Pursed Lip Breathing
Increase Fluid Intake
ABGs
Early Detection of Exacerbation
Considerations
Lowest O2 Therapy
Assisted Ventilation
Increased Infection Risk
2 mins
Emphysema
Pink Puffer
Exhale through Pursed Lips
Barrel Chest
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Compliance
Centriacinar
Panacinar
1 min
Bronchiectasis
Obstructive Lung Disease
Chronic Necrotizing Infection
Permanent Airway Dilation
Poor Ciliary Motility
Kartagener's Syndrome
Cystic Fibrosis
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
Hemoptysis
Increased Sputum
2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Assessment
Cause
Damaged Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Assessment
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Refractory Hypoxemia
Decreased PaO2
Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates
Atelectasis
Pulmonary Hypertension
2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
2 mins
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Assessment
Mechanism
Viral Infection Affecting Epithelial Cells
Signs and Symptoms
Begins After a Upper Respiratory Infection
Copious Secretions
Coughing and Sneezing
Wheezing
Otitis Media or Conjunctivitis (Possible Ear or Eye Drainage)
Poor Feeding
Tachypnea
2 mins
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Interventions
Palivizumab (Synagis)
Hospitalization
Contact Precautions
Oxygen
Separate Room
Maintain Fluid Intake
Short-acting Beta-Agonist Bronchodilator
2 mins
Sarcoidosis Characteristics and Labs
Mechanism
Unknown Mechanism
Immune-mediated
Noncaseating granulomas
Vitamin D activation
Labs
Hypercalcemia
Elevated ACE
Asteroid bodies
X-Ray shows Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
Treatment
Corticosteroids
1 min
Sarcoidosis Symptoms
Black Females
Symptoms
Asymptomatic
Uveitis
Interstitial Fibrosis
Erythema Nodosum
Hepatomegaly
Myocardial Sarcoidosis
Lupus Pernio
1 min
Cystic Fibrosis Mechanisms
Autosomal Recessive
CFTR chromosome 7
Cl- channel defect
Decreased chloride secretion
Increased Na and water reabsorption
Increased Na and Cl in sweat
Dehydration of mucous layers
2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms and Complications
Recurrent Pulmonary Infections
Chronic Bronchitis
Nasal Polyps
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Intestinal Obstruction
Malabsorption and Diarrhea
Vitamin Deficiencies
Chronic Hepatic Disease
Infertility in Males
1 min
Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Sweat chloride test > 60 mmol/L
Meconium Ileus
Treatment
N-acetylcysteine
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Pulmonary Maintenance
Lung transplant
Vitamin Replacement
1 min
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Accumulation of Air in Pleural Space
Tall and Thin Young Males
Underlying Disease
Bleb or Bulla Rupture
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Hypoxemia
Decreased Breath Sounds
Hyperresonance
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
1 min
Tension Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space, but Can't Exit
Trauma or Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Breath Sounds
Trachea Deviates Away from Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Hypoxemia
Hyperresonance
Emergency
2 mins
Wells' Criteria for Pulmonary Embolism
Scoring
Clinical Symptoms of DVT (+3)
Pulmonary Embolism Most Likely Diagnosis (+3)
Tachycardia (+1.5)
Immobilization > 3 Days (+1.5)
Previous DVT or PE (+1.5)
Hemoptysis (+1)
Malignancy (+1)
Probability
> 6 = High
2-6 = Moderate
< 2 = Low
3 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Presentation and Diagnosis
Presentation
Sudden onset Shortness of Breath (S.O.B.)
Tachypnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Sudden Death
Diagnosis
Gold Standard: CT Pulmonary Angiography
X-Ray
D-Dimer
V/Q Scan
1 min
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Management
Diagnosis
Compression Ultrasound (CUS) with Doppler
D-Dimer
Contrast Venography
Treatment
IVC Filter
Heparin for Acute Management
Warfarin for Long-term Management
Thrombectomy/Thrombolysis
Stockings
Walking
4 mins
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Characteristics
Mechanism
Virchow's Triad
Venous Stasis
Endothelial Damage
Hypercoagulability
Symptoms
Tenderness
Homan's Sign
Warmth
Redness
Swelling
Asymptomatic
1 min
Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Mechanism
Parainfluenza Virus
Assessment
3 Months to 3 Years
Nighttime
Barking Seal Cough
Inspiratory Stridor
Interventions
Cool Humidified Air
Dexamethasone
Racemic Epinephrine
2 mins
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Cause/Mechanism
Narrowed or Obstructed Air Passage
Assessment
Apnea
Loud Snoring
Startle Response
Daytime Drowsiness
Interventions
Positional Therapy
Oral Appliance
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Surgery
Considerations
Weight Loss
3 mins
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) Criteria
Must have 2 or more of the following:
Temperature < 36C or > 38C
Pulse > 90 beats per minute
Respirations > 20/min or PCO2 < 32
WBC < 4,000 or > 12,000 or 10% bands
Mechanism
Subset of Cytokine Storm and Related to Sepsis
2 mins
Reading a Chest X-Ray
ABCDE Approach
Airway and Appliances
Bones
Cardiac
Diaphragm
Everything Else
Masses
Pulmonary Vasculature
Lung Parenchyma
2 mins
Oxygen Delivery Methods
Nasal Cannula
Simple Face Mask
Non-Rebreather Mask
Venturi-Mask
Safety Precautions
Oxygen In Use Sign
No Electrical Sparks
Six Feet Away from Open Flames
Nursing Considerations
Dry Nasal and Upper Airway Mucosa
Skin Irritation
Home Education
1 min
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Characteristics
Characteristics
Mycolic Acid Cell Wall
Acid-fast
Carbolfuchsin Stain Red
Lowenstein-Jensen Agar
Serpentine Cord Factor
Primary TB
Primary TB
Caseating Granuloma
Ghon Focus
Hilar Lymph Nodes
Ghon Complex
Reactivation TB
Reactivation TB
Reactivation in Apex
3 mins
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Disease
CONSTITUTIONAL SYMPTOMS/PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Fever
Night Sweats
Weight Loss
Hemoptysis
EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Extrapulmonary Disease
Addison's Disease
CNS
Liver
Kidneys
GI
Bones
Pott's Disease
3 mins
Tuberculosis Intervention
Hospital Care
Airborne Isolation
Drug Therapy
Combination Drug Therapy (RIPE)
6-12 Months
Considerations
DOT
BCG Vaccination
Medication Education
3 Negative Sputum Specimens
Infection Control
2 mins
Cyanide Poisoning: Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestation
Pathophysiology
Inhibits Complex IV of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Forces Cells Into Anaerobic Metabolism
Presentation
Exposure to Fire Fumes
Industrial Exposure
Headache and Confusion
Arrhythmias
"Cherry Red" Skin
Almond Breath/Taste
Acute Renal Failure
4 mins
Cyanide Poisoning Diagnosis and Treatment
Lab Findings
Lactic Acidosis
Elevated Venous PO2
Check Carboxyhemoglobin
Management
Sodium Nitrate PLUS Sodium Thiosulfate
Methemoglobinemia
OR Hydroxocobalamin (First Line)
4 mins
Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Right Heart Cathetherization
≥ 20 mmHg at Rest
Chest X-Ray
MANAGEMENT
Treat Underlying Disorder
Calcium Channel Blockers
Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
Prostacyclin Analogs
PDE-5 inhibitors
2 mins
Rhinosinusitis Assessment
Pathology
Sinus Obstruction
Assessment
Nasal Drainage
Facial Pain
Lower Forehead
Cheeks
Nose
Retro-orbital
Fever
Persistent Symptoms
2 mins
Pulmonary Hypertension Classification (WHO)
Group 1
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Idiopathic
Hereditary
BMPR2 Mutation
Group 2
Left Heart Disease
Group 3
Lung Diseases or Hypoxia
COPD
Obstructive Sleep Apnea 
Group 4 
Chronic Pulmonary Emboli
Group 5
Multifactorial
2 mins
Mesothelioma
Characteristics
Malignant Pleural Tumor
Asbestos Exposure
Presentation
Dyspnea
Decreased Breath Sounds
Constitutional B Symptoms
Diagnosis 
Hemorrhagic Pleural Effusion
Pleural Thickening
Psammoma Bodies
Calretinin
Interventions
Surgery
Chemotherapy
2 mins
Atypical Pneumonia
CHARACTERISTICS
Diffuse Patchy Inflammation
Interstitial Pattern
"Walking Pneumonia"
Etiologies
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Adenovirus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Influenza
Presentation
Dry Cough
Treatment
Macrolides
2 mins

Ace Your Medical (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,010,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medical (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medical (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medical (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medical (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny