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Gastrointestinal System | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Esophageal Disorders
12 Picmonics to Learn | 24 mins

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Achalasia
Pathophysiology
Failure to Relax Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Malignancies
Chagas Disease
Loss of Auerbach Plexus
Symptoms
Dysphagia to Solids & Liquids
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Bird's Beak Appearance
Manometry
Risk Factors
Increased Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma
2 mins
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Pathophysiology
Relaxed Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Signs and Symptoms
Dyspepsia (Indigestion)
Belching
Nighttime Coughing
Dysphagia
Epigastric Pain
Regurgitation
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Globus
2 mins
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
1 min
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Hematemesis
Endoscopy
1 min
Boerhaave Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Esophageal Rupture
Increased Esophageal Pressure while Vomiting
Lower 1/3 of Esophagus
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Odynophagia
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Management
Shock
Surgical Emergency
2 mins
Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)
Cause
Esophageal Atresia
Ends in Blind Pouch
Assessment
Coughing
Choking
Cyanosis
Drooling
Considerations
NPO
Surgical Emergency
Aspiration Pneumonia
2 mins
Zenker Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
False Diverticulum
Junction of Pharynx and Esophagus
Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictor
Symptoms
Dysphagia
Regurgitation of Undigested Food
Halitosis
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Treatment
Surgical Repair
2 mins
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Triad of Symptoms
Dysphagia
Esophageal Webs
Glossitis
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Association
Squamous Cell Cancer of Esophagus
1 min
Esophageal Perforation
Etiologies
Iatrogenic
Inflammation
Trauma
Boerhaave Syndrome
Presentation
Retrosternal Pain
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Pneumomediastinum
Diagnostic Workup
Chest X-Ray
Esophagram
Computed Tomography
Management
ABCs (Airway, Breathing, Circulation)
Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics
Surgical Repair
4 mins
Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Characteristics
History of Atopic Disease
Symptoms
Dysphagia
Diagnosis
Endoscopy with Biopsy
Eosinophilic Infiltrate
Unresponsive to GERD Therapy
Interventions
Elimination Diet
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)
Topical Glucocorticoids
2 mins
Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors and Presentation
Characteristics
Most Common Esophageal Cancer Worldwide
Upper 2/3 of Esophagus
RISK FACTORS
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Alcohol
Smoking
Poor Diet
Achalasia
Clinical Features
Progressive Dysphagia
Weight Loss
Anemia
1 min
Esophageal Varices
Pathophysiology
Cirrhosis
Portal Hypertension
Left Gastric Vein and Esophageal Veins
Clinical Features
Hematemesis
Melena
Hypotension
Acute Management
IV Fluids
Antibiotics
Octreotide
Endoscopic Band Ligation or Sclerotherapy
Balloon Tamponade
Prophylaxis
Nonselective Beta Blockers
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)
3 mins

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