Ace Your Pediatrics Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medicine (MD/DO) Students

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Pediatrics | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology
21 Picmonics to Learn | 50 mins

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Refsum Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Peroxisome Dysfunction
Increased Phytanic Acid
Clinical Features
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hearing Loss
Polyneuropathy
Anosmia
Ataxia
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Management
Dietary Changes
Plasmapheresis
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3 mins
Type I Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Pathophysiology
Lower Motor Neuron Disease
SMN1 Mutation
Degeneration of Anterior Horn Cells
Autosomal Recessive
Clinical Features
Symmetric Flaccid Paralysis
Hypotonia
Bulbar Palsy
Extraocular Muscle Sparing
Respiratory Failure
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Treatment
Supportive Therapy
Nusinersen
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3 mins
Retinoblastoma
Characteristics
Loss of Heterozygosity
Chromosome 13
Children
Presentation
Leukocoria
Strabismus
Vision Loss
Association
Osteosarcoma
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Management
Cryotherapy
Photocoagulation
Chemotherapy or Radiation
Surgery
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3 mins
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Peroxisome Dysfunction
ABCD1 Mutation
Presentation
Adrenal Insufficiency
Leukoencephalopathy
Testicular Insufficiency
Diagnosis
Increased Very Long-chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA)
Demyelination
Genetic Testing
Treatment
Lorenzo's Oil
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
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3 mins
Tethered Cord Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Thickened Filum Terminale
Meningeal Adhesions
Spinal Canal Obstruction
Clinical Features
Back Pain
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Ataxia
Diagnosis
MRI
Treatment
Surgery
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3 mins
Spina Bifida Assessment
Cause
Congenital Malformation of Vertebrae
Assessment
Dimple With or Without Hair Tuft
Lumbar Sac
Hydrocephalus
Paralysis
Considerations
Identify Type
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2 mins
Spina Bifida Interventions
Surgery
Prone Position
Cover Sac with Moist (Sterile) Dressing
Measure Head Circumference
Bulging Fontanel
Considerations
Other Congenital Malformations Common
Bowel Control
Neurogenic Bladder
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2 mins
Ependymoma
Occur in Children
Fourth Ventricle
Hydrocephalus
Perivascular Pseudorosettes
Rod Shaped Blepharoplasts
Cauda Equina in Adults
Poor Prognosis
Neurofibromatosis Type II
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2 mins
Medulloblastoma
Pathophysiology
Occur in children
Cerebellum
Fourth ventricle
Diagnosis
Small blue cells
Lots of mitotic figures
Homer Wright Rosettes
Perivascular pseudorosettes
Signs and Symptoms
Hydrocephalus
Ataxia
Wide-based Gait
Treatment
Radiosensitive
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3 mins
Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Occurs Most Commonly in Kids
Posterior Fossa
Cerebellum
Well Circumscribed
GFAP
Rosenthal Fibers
Eosinophilic Corkscrew Fibers
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1 min
Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
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2 mins
Otitis Media Assessment
Red or Bulging Tympanic Membrane
Ear Pain
Pulling at ear
Fever
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
More Common in Young Children
Eustachian Tube Narrower
Conductive Hearing Loss
Smoking Increases Risk
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2 mins
Otitis Media Interventions
Antipyretics
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Irrigation
Position on Affected Side
Myringotomy
Tympanostomy Tube
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2 mins
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Cause/Mechanism
Maternal Infections
Fetal Hypoxia
Assessment
Developmental Delay
Neurological Dysfunction
Spasticity
Dysphagia
Interventions
Muscle Relaxants
Muscle Exercises
Assistive Devices
Braces
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2 mins
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Assessment
Assessment
Ascending Paralysis
Muscle Weakness
Paresthesias (Pins and Needles)
Diplopia
Difficulty Speaking
Dysphagia
Labile Blood Pressure
Loss of Bowel and Bladder Control
Considerations
Aggressive Airway Management
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2 mins
Dandy-Walker Malformation
Characteristics
Cerebellar Vermis Hypoplasia
Cystic Enlargement of 4th Ventricle
Associations
Noncommunicating Hydrocephalus
Spina Bifida
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1 min
Hydrocephalus Types
Characteristics
Cerebrospinal Fluid Accumulation
Types
Communicating Hydrocephalus
Noncommunicating Hydrocephalus
Variants
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo
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3 mins
Neuroblastoma Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
24-hour Urine Test
Increased Catecholamines
Homovanillic and Vanillylmandelic Acid
Ultrasound
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Biopsy
Pathology
Small Round Blue Cells
Homer-Wright Rosettes
Bombesin Positive
Neuron Specific Enolase Positive
Interventions
Local Excision
Chemotherapy
Radiation
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4 mins
Neuroblastoma Characteristics and Presentation
Characteristics
Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumor
Neural Crest Cells Origin
Sympathetic Ganglia
Adrenal Glands
Amplification of N-myc Oncogene
Most Common Cancer In Infancy
Clinical Presentation
Abdominal Mass That Can Cross Midline
Gastrointestinal Distress
Metastasis
Raccoon Eyes
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome
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4 mins
Poliomyelitis
Characteristics
Poliovirus
Picornavirus
Fecal-Oral Transmission
Destruction of Anterior Horn
Clinical Features
Flaccid Paralysis
Hyporeflexia
Fasciculations
Diagnosis
Elevated CSF Lymphocytes and Proteins
Normal CSF Glucose
Viral Culture or PCR
Management
Supportive Care
Vaccination
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3 mins
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Presentation
Subdural Hemorrhage
Retinal Hemorrhages
Bruising and Fractures
Diagnosis
CT of Head
Skeletal Survey
Treatment
Document Injuries
Notify Child Protective Services
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1 min

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