Ace Your Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medicine (MD/DO) Students

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Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Nervous System Pathology
18 Picmonics to Learn | 43 mins

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Adrenoleukodystrophy
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Peroxisome Dysfunction
ABCD1 Mutation
Presentation
Adrenal Insufficiency
Leukoencephalopathy
Testicular Insufficiency
Diagnosis
Increased Very Long-chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA)
Demyelination
Genetic Testing
Treatment
Lorenzo's Oil
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
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3 mins
Asterixis
Characteristics
Flapping Tremor
Periodic Loss of Postural Muscle Tone with Arms in Extension
Corrective Movements
Hyperammonemia
Associations
Liver Disease
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Kidney Disease
Uremia
Management
Treat Underlying Disorder
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2 mins
Refsum Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Peroxisome Dysfunction
Increased Phytanic Acid
Clinical Features
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hearing Loss
Polyneuropathy
Anosmia
Ataxia
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Management
Dietary Changes
Plasmapheresis
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3 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia vs. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome vs. Serotonin Syndrome
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Malignant Hyperthermia
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Dantrolene
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antidopaminergic Medications
Hyporeflexia
Myoglobinuria
Dantrolene
Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonergic Medications
Hyperreflexia
Clonus
Cyproheptadine
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3 mins
Glasgow Coma Scale
LOC Assessment
Score of 3 to 15
8 or Less = Coma
Eye Opening
Verbal Response
Motor Response
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1 min
Tardive Dyskinesia
Signs and Symptoms
Bizarre Facial Movements
Bizarre Tongue Movement
Increased Extremity Movements
Stiff Neck
Dysphagia
Interventions
Stop Medication
AIMS
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2 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia
Inheritance
Autosomal-Dominant
Pathophysiology and causes
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Symptoms
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Treatment
Dantrolene
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2 mins
Serotonin Syndrome Assessment
Mild Signs & Symptoms
Restlessness
Diaphoresis
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Diarrhea
Moderate Signs & Symptoms
Hyperthermia
Decreased Level of Consciousness
Muscle Rigidity
Severe Signs & Symptoms
Seizure and Coma
Treatment
Cyproheptadine
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2 mins
Chorea and Athetosis
Characteristics
Sudden Jerky Movements
Athetosis
Snake-like, Writhing Movements
Basal Ganglia Lesions
Associations
Huntington's Disease
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Management
Treat Underlying Disorder
Tetrabenazine
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1 min
Ballismus and Hemiballismus
Characteristics
Involuntary Flailing Movements
Worse with Activity; Improved with Rest
Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Subthalamic Nucleus
Associations
Stroke
Diabetes
Infection
Neoplasm
Treatment
Antidopaminergic Medications
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2 mins
Essential Tremor
Characteristics
Most Common Tremor in Adults
Positive Family History
Clinical Findings
Bilateral Upper Extremities
Worse with Physical and Psychological Stress
Better with Rest and Alcohol
Management
Beta Blockers
Primidone
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1 min
Intention Tremor
More Apparent With Goal-Directed Movements Such as Using Eating Utensils
High-Amplitude, Low-Frequency
More Apparent as Extremity Approaches Target
Overshooting and Undershooting
Pathogenesis
Ipsilateral Cerebellar Damage
Diagnosis
Neurologic Exam
MRI
Treatment
Physical or Occupational Therapy
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3 mins
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
CN V (Trigeminal Nerve)
Characteristics
Stabbing Unilateral Facial Pain
Trigger Zones
Psychological Disturbances
Bizarre Facial Movements
More Common in Women 
Classification
Classical
Secondary
Idiopathic
DIAGNOSIS
Diagnosis by Clinical Impression
MRI
Treatment
Carbamazepine
Surgery As Last Resort
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4 mins
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Pathophysiology
Misfolded Prion Protein
Spongiform Encephalopathy
Subtypes
Sporadic Type
Familial Type
Variant Type
Iatrogenic Type
Clinical Manifestations
Rapidly Progressive
Dementia
Ataxia
Myoclonus
Diagnosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Increased Levels of 14-3-3 Protein
Periodic Sharp Waves On EEG
Management
Supportive Care
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4 mins
Pseudotumor Cerebri: Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
Lumbar Puncture with Increased Opening Pressure
Normal MRI or CT
Management
Weight Loss
Acetazolamide
Topiramate
Surgery
Avoid Triggers
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3 mins
Pseudotumor Cerebri: Risk Factors And Presentation
Increased Intracranial Pressure With Unknown Etiology
Risk Factors
Women of Childbearing Age
Obesity
Vitamin A Excess
Tetracyclines
Symptoms
Papilledema
Headache
Diplopia
Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens) Palsy
No Altered Mental Status
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2 mins
Hydrocephalus Types
Characteristics
Cerebrospinal Fluid Accumulation
Types
Communicating Hydrocephalus
Noncommunicating Hydrocephalus
Variants
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo
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3 mins
Sciatica
Cause
Compression or Damage to Sciatic Nerve
Herniated Disc
Assessment
Shooting Pain
Lower Back Down to Thigh
Interventions
Anti-Inflammatories
Steroid Injections
IDET (Intradiscal Electrothermoplasty)
Considerations
Straight-leg Raising Test
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2 mins

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