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Nervous System | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Movement & Degenerative Disorders
20 Picmonics to Learn | 50 mins

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Causes of Dementia
Reversible Causes
Intoxication or Medications
Depression
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Metabolic Conditions
Irreversible Causes
Lewy Body Disease
Prion Disease
Pick's Disease
AIDS Dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
Multi-infarct (Vascular) Dementia
2 mins
5 A's of Alzheimer's Disease
Agnosia
Anomia
Aphasia
Apraxia
Amnesia
1 min
Parkinson's Disease Assessment
Assessment
Decreased Dopamine
Older Adult
Cogwheel Rigidity
Bradykinesia
Shuffling Gait
Resting Tremor
Pill-Rolling
Mask-Like Face
Cognitive Decline
2 mins
Parkinson's Drugs
Parkinsons Characteristics
Decreased Dopamine
Increased Acetylcholine
Drug Names
BALSA Acronym
Bromocriptine
Amantadine
Levodopa
Selegiline
Antimuscarinics
2 mins
Parkinson's Disease Interventions
Medications
Levodopa/Carbidopa (Sinemet)
Entacapone (Comtan)
Selegiline (Eldepryl)
Amantadine (Symmetrel)
Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
Benztropine (Cogentin)
Considerations
Allow Extra Time
Drug Holiday
Ensure Patient Safety
Surgery As Last Resort
2 mins
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Assessment
Progressive Muscle Weakness
Systemic Muscle Wasting
Fasciculations
Spasticity
Fatigue
Considerations
Riluzole (Rilutek)
Moderate Exercise
No Cognitive Decline
Respiratory Support
Palliative Care
2 mins
Huntington's Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CAG Repeats
Chromosome 4
Anticipation
Caudate
Decrease of ACh
Decrease of GABA
Signs and Symptoms
Chorea
Dementia
Depression
Glutamate Toxicity
Neuronal Death via NMDA Binding
3 mins
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Mechanism
Elderly
Idiopathic
Decreased Absorption of CSF
Ventricular Enlargement
Symptom Triad
Urinary Incontinence
Ataxia (Gait)
Cognitive Dysfunction
2 mins
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Acute Loss of Lumbar Plexus Function
Surgical Emergency
Saddle Anesthesia
Causes
Inflammatory Disorders
Spinal Stenosis
Trauma
Lesions
Symptoms
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Sciatica
Diagnosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Clinical
1 min
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Bilateral Amygdala Lesion
Associated with HSV-1
Hyperorality
Hypersexuality
Disinhibited Behavior
1 min
Lewy Bodies
Pathophysiology
Alpha-synuclein Defect
Eosinophilic Cytoplasmic Inclusion
Associated Pathologies
Parkinson's Disease
Lewy Body Dementia
56 secs
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Cause/Mechanism
Maternal Infections
Fetal Hypoxia
Assessment
Developmental Delay
Neurological Dysfunction
Spasticity
Dysphagia
Interventions
Muscle Relaxants
Muscle Exercises
Assistive Devices
Braces
2 mins
Hemiballismus
Presentation
Involuntary Flailing Movements on One Side of Body
Upper and Lower Extremities Move Together
May Affect Facial Muscles
Worsened by Activity, Improved at Rest
Causes
Dysfunction of Basal Ganglia
Contralateral Subthalamic Nucleus
Stroke is the Most Common Cause
Trauma
Neoplasm
Treatment
Dopamine Blockers
4 mins
Essential Tremor
Epidemiology
Most Common Tremor in Adults
Often Familial 
Clinical Manifestations
Typically Affects Bilateral Upper Extremities
More Apparent When Holding Fixed Posture
More Apparent With Goal-Directed Movements Such as Using Eating Utensils
Less Apparent With Relaxation and Alcohol
Management
Beta Blockers
3 mins
Rett Syndrome
Pathogenesis
Sporadic Neurological Disorder
De Novo Mutation of MECP2 on X Chromosome
RISK FACTORS & SYMPTOMS
Seen Almost Exclusively In Girls
Affected Males Die in Utero or Shortly After Birth
Symptoms Usually Appear Between Ages 1-4
Developmental Regression
Motor Impairment
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Loss of Verbal Abilities
Seizure
Stereotyped Hand Wringing
Decelerated Head Growth (Microcephaly)
Breathing Problems
Ataxia
5 mins
Intention Tremor
More Apparent With Goal-Directed Movements Such as Using Eating Utensils
High-Amplitude, Low-Frequency
More Apparent as Extremity Approaches Target
Overshooting and Undershooting
Pathogenesis
Ipsilateral Cerebellar Damage
Diagnosis
Neurologic Exam
MRI
Treatment
Physical or Occupational Therapy
3 mins
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
CN V (Trigeminal Nerve)
Characteristics
Stabbing Unilateral Facial Pain
Trigger Zones
Psychological Disturbances
Bizarre Facial Movements
More Common in Women 
Classification
Classical
Secondary
Idiopathic
DIAGNOSIS
Diagnosis by Clinical Impression
MRI
Treatment
Carbamazepine
Surgery As Last Resort
4 mins
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Pathophysiology
Misfolded Prion Protein
Spongiform Encephalopathy
Subtypes
Sporadic Type
Familial Type
Variant Type
Iatrogenic Type
Clinical Manifestations
Rapidly Progressive
Dementia
Ataxia
Myoclonus
Diagnosis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Increased Levels of 14-3-3 Protein
Periodic Sharp Waves On EEG
Management
Supportive Care
4 mins
Charcot Marie Tooth Disease
Pathophysiology
Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy
Autosomal Dominant
PMP22 Duplication
Schwann Cell Dysfunction
Clinical Features
Distal Muscle Weakness
Foot Drop
Calf Muscle Atrophy
Scoliosis
Hammertoes
Pes Cavus
Diagnosis
Onion-skin Appearance on Nerve Biopsy
Electrodiagnostic Studies
5 mins
Chorea and Athetosis
Characteristics
Sudden Jerky Movements
Athetosis
Snake-like, Writhing Movements
Basal Ganglia Lesions
Associations
Huntington's Disease
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Management
Treat Underlying Disorder
Tetrabenazine
1 min

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