Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK, 9th Ed Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK, 9th Ed Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Nonselective Alpha-Blockers
Indications
Phentolamine
Reversible
Pheochromocytoma (Diagnosis)
Hypertensive Crisis
Phenoxybenzamine
Pheochromocytoma (Treatment)
Side Effects
Orthostatic Hypotension
Reflex Tachycardia
2 mins
Nonselective Beta-Blockers
"-olol" Suffix
Nonselective
Propranolol
Timolol
Nadolol
Partial β Agonist
Pindolol
Nonselective β with α Blocking
Carvedilol
Labetalol
2 mins
Selective Alpha-1 Blockers
"-osin" suffix
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Alpha1 Receptors
Indications
Hypertension
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Side Effects
Syncope
Orthostatic Hypotension
1 min
Selective Alpha-2 Blockers
Mirtazapine
Indications
Depression Treatment
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Alpha2 Receptor
Antagonist at 5-HT receptors
Side Effects
Sedation
Weight gain
Increased Serum Cholesterol
1 min
ACE Inhibitor Toxicity
CAPTOPRIL Mnemonic
Cough
Angioedema
Potassium Changes (Hyperkalemia)
Taste Change
Hypotension
Pregnancy Changes
Rash
Increased Renin
Lower Angiotensin II
2 mins
Selective Beta-1 Blockers
Characteristics
"-olol" Suffix
Drug Names
Beta-1 selective
Atenolol
Esmolol
Metoprolol
Partial Beta agonists
Acebutolol
1 min
ACE Inhibitors
-Pril Suffix
Indications
Hypertension
CHF
Diabetic Nephropathy
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits ACE
Decreases GFR
Inhibits Constriction of Efferent Arteriole
Side Effect
Increased Bradykinin
Cough
1 min
Systemic Effects of Beta-Blockers
Respiratory
Bronchoconstriction
Metabolic
Decreased Insulin
Decreased Glycolysis and Lipolysis
Eye
Reduces Intraocular Pressure
1 min
Acute Pericarditis Assessment
Pericardial Sac Inflammation
Assessment
Sharp Chest Pain
Increased with Inspiration
Pain Decreased by Leaning Forward
Pericardial Friction Rub
Diffuse ST-Elevation
T Wave Inversion
Fever
Considerations
May Be Asymptomatic
Cardiac Tamponade
2 mins
Thiazide Diuretics
Early Distal Tubule
Inhibits NaCl Reabsorption
Sulfa Drug
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypercalcemia
Hyperuricemia
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
2 mins
Acute Pericarditis Causes
Idiopathic
Infection
Trauma
Cardiac
Myocardial Infarction
Autoimmune
Connective Tissue Disorders
Uremia
Tumor
Radiation
2 mins
Acute Pericarditis Interventions
Interventions
Treat Underlying Disorder
Antibiotics
Colchicine + NSAIDs
Corticosteroids
Place Patient Upright with Head of Bed at 45°
Pericardiocentesis
Pericardial Window
2 mins
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
-sartan suffix
Indications
Hypertension
CHF
Diabetic Nephropathy
Mechanism of Action
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Side Effect
Hyperkalemia
Contraindication
Pregnancy
1 min
Beta Blocker Antidote
Antidote
Glucagon
28 secs
Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
2 mins
Class IV Antiarrhythmics (Ca2+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
SVT
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mechanism of Action
Decrease Conduction Velocity
Increase PR Interval and ERP
Drugs
Verapamil
Diltiazem
Nimodipine
Side Effects
Cardiovascular
Constipation
2 mins
Hydralazine
Indications
Reduce Afterload
Severe Hypertension
Safe during Pregnancy
CHF
Mechanism of Action
Increases cGMP
Vasodilates Arterioles
Side Effects
Drug-induced Lupus
Reflex Tachycardia
1 min
K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa Drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Gout
Ototoxicity
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
4 mins

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