Ace Your First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2020 Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2020 Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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9 Picmonics to Learn | 20 mins

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Carcinoid Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Neuroendocrine Cells
Serotonin
Appendix
Diagnosis
Chromogranin A
Neuron Specific Enolase
Dense Core Bodies on EM
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms When Metastasize to Liver
Flushing
Wheezing
Right Heart Murmur
Diarrhea
3 mins
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Disease
Pathophysiology
Gastrin-Secreting Tumor
Increased Gastric Acid
Recurrent Peptic Ulcers
MEN Type 1
Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Diarrhea
2 mins
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
1 min
Pramlintide (Symlin)
Mechanism
Synthetic Amylin Analog
Indications
Diabetes Type 1 and 2
Supplement Mealtime Insulin
Side Effects
Nausea
Skin Reactions at Injection Site
Considerations
Hypoglycemia When Combined with Insulin
Delayed Absorption of Oral Drugs
1 min
Exenatide (Byetta)
Mechanism
Incretin Mimetic
GLP-1 Synthetic Analog
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
Thyroid Cancer
Pancreatitis
Renal Failure
Considerations
(Give Exenatide) One Hour After Other Medications
Adjunct Therapy
3 mins
Metformin
Indications
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mechanism of Action
Decreased Gluconeogenesis
Increased Insulin Sensitivity
Side Effects
Lactic Acidosis
GI Distress
Weight Loss
B12 Deficiency
Contraindication
Renal Failure
1 min
Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide (Orinase) (1st Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
1st Generation Sulfonylureas
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Possible Cardiovascular Toxicity
Considerations
Beta-blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid During Pregnancy and Breast Feeding
Avoid Alcohol
1 min
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
2 mins
Repaglinide and Nateglinide (Meglitinides)
Mechanisms
Meglitinides
Increased Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effect
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Eat Within 30 Minutes
Gemfibrozil Increases Risk of Hypoglycemia
Short Half-Life
1 min

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