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Medicine (MD/DO)
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First Aid
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2020)
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2020) | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Page 537 -
6 Picmonics to Learn | 13 mins
Detached Retina
Assessment
Flashes of Light
Floaters
Curtain Like Shadow
Interventions
Eye Patch
Bed Rest
Surgical Emergency
Considerations
No Vigorous Activity
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Characteristics
Hereditary Retinal Degeneration
Clinical Features
Night Blindness
Contrast and Color Defects
Tunnel Vision
Associations
Abetalipoproteinemia
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
Refsum Disease
Diagnosis
Bone Spicule-shaped Retinal Deposits
Considerations
Permanent Blindness
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2 mins
Hypertensive Retinopathy
Etiology
Chronic Hypertension
Fundoscopic Findings
Flame Hemorrhages
Arteriovenous Nicking
Retinal Microaneurysms
Cotton Wool Spots
Macular Star
Papilledema
Treatment
Lower Blood Pressure
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2 mins
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Etiologies
Hypercoagulability
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Clinical Features
Non-Ischemic
Mild to Moderate Vision Loss
Sparse Dot-blot and Flame Hemorrhages
Ischemic
Sudden, Painless Vision Loss
"Blood and Thunder" Appearance
Cotton Wool Spots
Papilledema
Interventions
Observation if Non-Ischemic
Laser Photocoagulation
VEGF Inhibitors
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3 mins
Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Increased Capillary Permeability and Leakage
Often Asymptomatic
Fundoscopic Findings
Retinal Microaneurysms
Flame-shaped Hemorrhages
Cotton Wool Spots
Hard Exudates
Macular Edema
Management
Treat Diabetes
Laser Photocoagulation
Bevacizumab
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3 mins
Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Angiogenesis
Increased VEGF
Asymptomatic Until Late-stage
Fundoscopic Findings
Vitreous Hemorrhage
Retinal Detachment
Glaucoma
Findings of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Management
Laser Photocoagulation
Surgery
Bevacizumab
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2 mins

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