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First Aid
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2020)
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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 (2020) | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Page 258 -
5 Picmonics to Learn | 12 mins
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
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2 mins
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
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2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
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1 min
Quantifying Risk: Contingency 2x2 Table Setup
Disease
Along Top (x axis)
Exposure
Along Side (y axis)
A: Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
B: Exposed and Healthy
C: Not Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
D: Not Exposed and Healthy
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2 mins
Scientific Bias Types
DEFINITION
Bias
RECRUITING PARTICIPANTS
Selection Bias
Berkson Bias
Attrition Bias
PERFORMING STUDY
Recall Bias
Measurement Bias
Procedure Bias
Observer-expectancy Bias
INTERPRETING RESULTS
Confounding Bias
Lead-time Bias
Length-time Bias
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6 mins

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