Ace Your [ARCHIVED] First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2019 Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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[ARCHIVED] First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2019 | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Hypercholesterolemia Disease
Risk Factors
Diabetes
Smoking
Family History
Hypertension
HDL < 40
Men Older than 45 Years of Age
Women Older than 55 Years of Age
Signs and Symptoms
Atheromas
Plaques in Blood Vessel Walls
Tissue Ischemia
Xanthomas
Lipemia Retinalis
2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Risk Stratification
0 - 1 Risk Factors
< 160 mg/dl LDL goal
greater or equal to 2 Risk Factors and 10-year Risk ≤ 20%
< 130 mg/dL LDL Goal
Coronary Heart Disease OR >/= to 2 Risk Factors AND 10-Year Risk > 20%
< 100 mg/dL LDL Goal
2 mins
Hypercholesterolemia Treatment
Lifestyle Modifications (Diet, Exercise, Smoking Cessation)
Statins
Niacin
Ezetimibe
Fibrates
Bile Acid Resins
Screening
Men greater or equal to 35 Years Old (20-35 if at increased risk)
Women greater or equal to 45 Years Old (20-45 if at increased risk)
2 mins
Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Recessive
PATHOGENESIS
Defective Apolipoprotein E (Apo E)
Lab Findings
Increased Chylomicrons
Increased VLDL
Symptoms/Findings
Premature atherosclerosis
Tuberoeruptive xanthomas
Palmar xanthomas
3 mins
Hyperchylomicronemia (Type I Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Recessive
PATHOGENESIS
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPL)
Altered Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II)
Lab Findings
Increased Chylomicrons
Increased Cholesterol
Increased Triglycerides
Symptoms/Findings
Pancreatitis
Hepatosplenomegaly
No Increased Risk for Atherosclerosis
Eruptive/Pruritic Xanthomas
Milky White Appearance of Blood When Drawn
3 mins
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (Type IIa Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Dominant
PATHOGENESIS
Defective or Absent LDL Receptors
Defective Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100)
Lab Findings
Increased LDL
Decreased HDL
Type IIb also has Increased VLDL
Symptoms/Findings
Accelerated Atherosclerosis
Achilles Tendon Xanthomas
Xanthelasma
Corneal Arcus
4 mins
Hypertriglyceridemia (Type IV Familial Dyslipidemia)
INHERITANCE
Autosomal Dominant
pathogenesis
Hepatic Overproduction of VLDL
Related to Insulin Resistance
Lab Findings
Increased VLDL
Increased Triglycerides (> 1000 mg/dL)
Symptoms/Findings
Acute Pancreatitis
Eruptive Xanthomas
Increased Risk for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Increased Risk of Peripheral Vascular Disease
3 mins

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