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First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2019 | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Page 258 -
5 Picmonics to Learn | 10 mins

Odds Ratio (OR)
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
2 mins
Relative Risk (RR)
Used in Cohort Studies
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
1 min
Quantifying Risk: Contingency 2x2 Table Setup
Along Top (x axis)
Along Side (y axis)
A: Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
B: Exposed and Healthy
C: Not Exposed and Diseased (Sick)
D: Not Exposed and Healthy
2 mins
Common Statistical Tests
Determine If Comparing Numerical Or Categorical Variables
Numerical Variables
T-Test For Comparing Means Of Two Groups
ANOVA For Comparing Means In Greater Than Three Groups
Comparing Mean Values On Normal/Bell Distribution
Categorical Variables
Chi-Squared Test For Comparing Categorical Outcomes In Large Sample Sizes
Fisher's Exact Test For Comparing Categorical Outcomes In Small Sample Sizes
4 mins

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