Ace Your Pediatrics Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medicine (MD/DO) Students

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Pediatrics | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Hematology
14 Picmonics to Learn | 35 mins

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Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
Characteristics
Antigen Presentation Defect
Lytic Bone Lesions
Skull
Presentation
Hypopituitarism
Diabetes Insipidus
Skin Rash
Recurrent Otitis Media
Diagnosis
Birbeck Granules
"Tennis Racket" Appearance
S100 Positive
Management
Observation
Prednisone +/- Vinblastine
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4 mins
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Characteristics
Excessive Immune System Activation
Cytotoxic T-cells and Macrophages
Cytokine Storm
Acquired or Sporadic
Presentation
Fever
Hepatosplenomegaly
Labs
Increased Ferritin
Pancytopenia
Management
Bone Marrow Transplantation
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3 mins
Rh Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn
Characteristics
Rh (Rhesus) Incompatibilities
Rh(D)- Mother and Rh(D)+ Fetus
Anti-Rh(D) Antibodies
Hemolytic Anemia
Presentation
Hydrops Fetalis
Neonatal Jaundice
Kernicterus
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Ultrasound
Management
RhoGAM [Anti-Rh(D) Immunoglobulin]
Intrauterine Blood Transfusion
Phototherapy
IVIG (Intravenous Immunoglobulin)
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4 mins
ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn
Characteristics
ABO Incompatibilities
Type O Mother and Type A/B Fetus
Anti-A or Anti-B Antibodies
Hemolytic Anemia
Presentation
Often Asymptomatic
Neonatal Jaundice
Diagnosis
Negative Coombs Test
Management
Phototherapy
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2 mins
Hyperbilirubinemia
Cause/Mechanism
Increased Unconjugated Bilirubin
Assessment
Jaundice
Kernicterus
Interventions
Early Feedings
Heme Oxygenase Inhibitors
Phototherapy
Protect Eyes
Monitor for Dehydration
Considerations
Monitor Bilirubin Levels
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3 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Signs and Complications)
Signs
Crew-cut on Skull X-ray
Complications
Auto-splenectomy
Painful Crisis
Aplastic Crisis
Splenic-sequestration Crisis
Hyper-hemolytic Syndrome
Renal Papillary Necrosis
Salmonella osteomyelitis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Hyposthenuria
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Management)
Long Term Treatment
Hydroxyurea
Bone Marrow Transplant
Folate
Acute Treatment
Exchange Transfusion
Prophylaxis
Penicillin Prophylaxis
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1 min
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Children
Pathophysiology
Preceded by Acute Diarrheal Illness
Endothelial Damage
Classic Triad of Symptoms
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (MAHA)
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Labs
Helmet cells
LDH
Treatment
Dialysis
Supportive
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2 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Disease
Northern Europeans
Mechanisms
Autosomal Dominant
Spectrin/Ankyrin Deficiency
Spherocyte Formation
Hemolytic Anemia
Symptoms
Bilirubin Gallstones
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
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3 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Diagnosis & Treatment
Labs
Increased MCHC
Spherocytes
Normocytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Osmotic Fragility Test
Treatment
Splenectomy
Folic Acid
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1 min
Fanconi Anemia
Characteristics
Autosomal Recessive
Aplastic Anemia
DNA Crosslink Repair Defect
Clinical Presentation
Short Stature
Microcephaly
Thumb and Forearm Malformations
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Ocular Abnormalities
Horseshoe Kidney
Lab Findings
Chromosomal Breakage Testing
Macrocytic Anemia
Pancytopenia
Management
Monitor For Malignancy and Bone Marrow Failure
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
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3 mins
EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli)
Characteristics
O157:H7
Non-Sorbitol Fermenting
Hamburger Meat
Produces Shiga-Like Toxin
Gram-Negative
Lysogeny
Inactivates 60 S ribosome
Disease
Bloody Diarrhea
Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Acute Renal Failure
Thrombocytopenia
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2 mins

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