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Pediatrics | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Gastroenterology
22 Picmonics to Learn | 43 mins

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Omphalocele
Characteristics
Herniation of Abdominal Organs via Umbilicus
Covered by Peritoneum
Defect of Lateral Fold Closure
Associations
Trisomy Syndromes
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
Diagnosis
Increased AFP
Management
Surgery
2 mins
Imperforate Anus
Mechanism
Congenital Anorectal Malformation
Signs and Symptoms
No Anal Opening
Absence of Meconium
Gradual Increase in Abdominal Distention
Considerations
Surgical Repair
Bowel Management
2 mins
Hyperbilirubinemia
Cause/Mechanism
Increased Unconjugated Bilirubin
Assessment
Jaundice
Kernicterus
Interventions
Early Feedings
Heme Oxygenase Inhibitors
Phototherapy
Protect Eyes
Monitor for Dehydration
Considerations
Monitor Bilirubin Levels
3 mins
Intussusception
Assessment
Episodic Abdominal Pain
Diarrhea
Sausage-Shaped Mass
Red Currant Jelly Stools
Considerations
Air or Hydrostatic Enema
Surgical Reduction
2 mins
Meckel's Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
True Diverticulum
Vitelline Duct
Yolk Stalk
Contain Ectopic Tissue
Pancreatic And Gastric Mucosa
Signs and Symptoms
Hemorrhage
Intussusceptions
Volvulus
Diagnosis
2 Feet From Ileocecal Valve
2 Inches Long
2% Population
First 2 Years Of Life
Pertechnetate T99
2 mins
Appendicitis
Mechanism and Characteristics
Fecolith leading to obstruction and infection
Most commonly affects teenagers
Presentation
Initial peri-umbilical visceral pain
Subsequent somatic right lower quadrant pain
Diagnosis
Rebound tenderness
Positive psoas sign
Pain at McBurney's point
Leukocytosis
Fever
Treatment
Appendectomy
1 min
Acute Appendicitis Treatment
Diagnosis
Diagnosis by Clinical Impression
Further Imaging Studies Not Required
Treatment
Immediate Appendectomy
NPO
IV Fluids
Antibiotics
Perforation
Tertiary Intention
Antibiotics Until Afebrile
2 mins
Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)
Cause
Esophageal Atresia
Ends in Blind Pouch
Assessment
Coughing
Choking
Cyanosis
Drooling
Considerations
NPO
Surgical Emergency
Aspiration Pneumonia
2 mins
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (HPS) Assessment
Mechanism
Hypertrophied Pylorus
Risk Factor
Macrolide Use
Assessment
3-6 Weeks of Age
Projectile Vomiting After Feeding
No Pain or Discomfort
Weight Loss
Dehydration
Hungry Baby
Olive Mass
2 mins
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (HPS) Interventions
Treatment
Pyloromyotomy
Preoperative Care
Stabilize Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Nasogastric Tube
Monitor Feeding
Postoperative Care
Start Formula or Breastfeeding Within 24 Hours
Feedings Every 4-6 hours
Full Feeding Within 2 days
2 mins
Hirschsprung Disease
Failure of Neuronal Crest Cell Migration
Involves Rectum
Lack of Auerbach and Meissner Plexus
Chronic Constipation
Failure to Pass Meconium
Congenital Megacolon
Increased Risk with Down Syndrome
2 mins
Rotavirus
Characteristics
Reovirus
Non-enveloped
Double-Stranded
RNA Virus
Linear
11 Segments
Triple Icosahedral Capsid
Most Common Cause of Diarrhea Worldwide
Villous Atrophy
Winter Months
Day Care Centers
Treatment
Oral Rehydration
2 mins
Celiac Disease Characteristics
Epidemiology
European Descent
HLA-DQ2
HLA-DQ8
Pathophysiology
Autoimmune-mediated Intolerance of Gliadin
Symptoms
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Weight Loss
Failure to Thrive
Decreased Bone Density
Steatorrhea
Anemia
2 mins
Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Blunting of Intestinal Villi
Lymphocytes in Lamina Propria
Anti-gliadin Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-endomysial Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies (IgA)
Treatment
Gluten-Free Diet
Corticosteroids
Dapsone
Complications
Intestinal Lymphoma
2 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Characteristics
Autoimmune
Mucosal and Submucosal Only
Rectal Involvement
Stepwise Lesions
Friable Pseudopolyp
Crypt Abscess
Loss of Haustra
Lead Pipe Appearance
Bloody Diarrhea
2 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Associations
Associations
Toxic Megacolon
Colorectal Carcinoma
Anterior Uveitis
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
P-ANCA
1 min
Crohn's Disease Assessment
Diarrhea
5-6 per day
Cramping Abdominal Pain
Fever
Weight Loss
Malabsorption
Anemia
Complications
Obstruction
Fistulas
2 mins
Crohn's Disease Characteristics
Terminal Ileum and Colon
Rectal Sparing
Transmural Inflammation
Granulomas
Skip Lesions
Cobblestone Mucosa
Fissures
Fistulas
Perianal Disease
Creeping Fat
Lymphoid Aggregates
String Sign on Barium Swallow
2 mins
Crohn's Symptoms and Associations
Diarrhea
Malabsorption
Bile-Wasting
Pigment Gallstones
Oxalate Kidney Stones
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Erythema Nodosum
Uveitis
Migratory Polyarthritis
2 mins
Lactose Intolerance
Pathophysiology
Lactase Deficiency
Decreased Lactose Absorption
Increased Osmotic Load
Presentation
Abdominal Pain
Flatulence
Diarrhea
Diagnosis
Positive Hydrogen Breath Test
Decreased Stool pH
Management
Avoid Dairy
Lactase Supplementation
2 mins
EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli)
Characteristics
O157:H7
Non-Sorbitol Fermenting
Hamburger Meat
Produces Shiga-Like Toxin
Gram-Negative
Lysogeny
Inactivates 60 S ribosome
Disease
Bloody Diarrhea
Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Acute Renal Failure
Thrombocytopenia
2 mins
Gastroenteritis
Cause/Mechanism
Viruses
Bacteria
Food Intolerances
Assessment
Flu-Like Symptoms
GI Distress
Bloody Stool
Interventions
Oral Rehydration
Considerations
Self-Limiting
Prevention
2 mins

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