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Pathology | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Pulmonary Pathology
12 Picmonics to Learn | 27 mins

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Methemoglobinemia Characteristics
Characteristics
Oxidized Iron in Hemoglobin
Decreased Affinity for Oxygen
Increased Affinity for Cyanide
Etiologies
Dietary Nitrates
Drugs
Nitroglycerin
Lidocaine
G6PD Deficiency
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2 mins
Pleural Effusion
Characteristics
Accumulation of Fluid in Pleural Space
Types
Transudative
Exudative
Chylothorax
Clinical Features
Dyspnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Decreased Breath Sounds
Diagnosis
Chest X-ray
Light Criteria
Management
Treat Underlying Disorder
Thoracentesis
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3 mins
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Accumulation of Air in Pleural Space
Tall and Thin Young Males
Underlying Disease
Bleb or Bulla Rupture
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Hypoxemia
Decreased Breath Sounds
Hyperresonance
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
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1 min
Tension Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space, but Can't Exit
Trauma or Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Breath Sounds
Trachea Deviates Away from Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Hypoxemia
Hyperresonance
Emergency
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2 mins
Chest Tubes: Management and Care
Confirm suction order
Assessment
Crepitus
Kinking
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Infection
Excessive bubbling
Quick Interventions
If tube dislodges from patient, use petroleum gauze taped 3 ways
If drainage system is damaged, place disconnected drainage tube in sterile water
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1 min
Flail Chest
Cause/Mechanism
Trauma
Assessment
Shallow Respirations
Chest Pain
Paradoxical Chest Movement
Interventions
Mechanical Ventilation
Analgesics
Intercostal Nerve Blocks
Considerations
Surgical Rib Fixation
Monitor Pulmonary Contusion
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2 mins
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Cause/Mechanism
Narrowed or Obstructed Air Passage
Assessment
Apnea
Loud Snoring
Startle Response
Daytime Drowsiness
Interventions
Positional Therapy
Oral Appliance
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Surgery
Considerations
Weight Loss
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3 mins
Cyanide Poisoning: Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestation
Pathophysiology
Inhibits Complex IV of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Forces Cells Into Anaerobic Metabolism
Presentation
Exposure to Fire Fumes
Industrial Exposure
Headache and Confusion
Arrhythmias
"Cherry Red" Skin
Almond Breath/Taste
Acute Renal Failure
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4 mins
Cyanide Poisoning Diagnosis and Treatment
Lab Findings
Lactic Acidosis
Elevated Venous PO2
Check Carboxyhemoglobin
Management
Sodium Nitrate PLUS Sodium Thiosulfate
Methemoglobinemia
OR Hydroxocobalamin (First Line)
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4 mins
Hypoxia (Late Symptoms)
Cyanosis
Cool, Clammy Skin
Use of Accessory Muscles
Retractions
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Hypoxia (Early Symptoms)
Diaphoresis
Restlessness
Tachypnea
Dyspnea on Exertion
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Decreased Urine Output
Unexplained Fatigue
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1 min
Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space
Assessment
Sudden Dyspnea
Absent or Restricted Movement on Affected Side
Decreased or Absent Breath Sounds on Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tracheal Deviation
Vital Sign Changes
Crepitus
Considerations
High Fowlers Position With Oxygen
Prepare For Chest Tube Placement
Educate High Risk Patients
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2 mins

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