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Medicine (MD/DO)
USMLE Step 1
Ischemic Brain Disease (Stroke)

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Pathology | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Ischemic Brain Disease (Stroke)
11 Picmonics to Learn | 23 mins
Types of Strokes
Warning Signs
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit (RIND)
Atrial Fibrillation
Severe Hypertension
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3 mins
Middle Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis upper limb and face
Contralateral loss of sensation of upper limb and face
Affects Wernicke's area and Broca's area
Aphasia if Lesion in Dominant (Left) Hemisphere
Hemineglect if lesion in nondominant (right) hemisphere
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1 min
Left Hemisphere Stroke Assessment
Opposite Side Weakness (Hemiplegia)
Side to Side Discrimination
Slow Performance
Aware of Deficits
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2 mins
Right Hemisphere Stroke Assessment
Opposite Side Weakness (Hemiplegia)
Poor Proprioception
Disoriented to Person, Place, Time
Can't Recognize Faces (Prosopagnosia)
Loss of Judgement and Awareness
Personality Changes
Tonal Hearing Loss
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2 mins
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis of lower limb
Contralateral loss of sensation in lower limb
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1 min
Basilar Artery Stroke Assessment
Brainstem Structures
Lateral Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Tracts
Clinical Findings
Locked-in Syndrome
Motor Dysfunction
Preserved Vertical Eye Movements
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2 mins
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Stroke Assessment
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
Lateral Pontine Syndrome
Ipsilateral Clinical Findings
Decreased Facial Pain and Temperature Sensation
Facial Muscle Weakness
Decreased Taste from Anterior 2/3 of Tongue
Deceased Salivation and Lacrimation
Nystagmus and Hearing Loss
Horner Syndrome
Contralateral Clinical Findings
Decreased Body Pain and Temperature Sensation
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3 mins
Histologic Evolution of Ischemic Stroke
> 5 Minutes
Irreversible Neuronal Injury
12-24 hours
Red Neurons
1-3 days
Liquefactive Necrosis (Neutrophils)
3–5 Days
1-2 Weeks
Reactive Gliosis (Astrocytes)
Vascular Proliferation
> 2 weeks
Glial Scar
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2 mins
Gerstmann Syndrome
MCA Stroke
Angular Gyrus
Parietal Lobe
Dominant Hemisphere
Integration of Visual, Acoustic, and Sensory Information
Components of Gerstmann Syndrome
Left-Right Disorientation
Finger Agnosia
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2 mins
Wallenberg Syndrome (PICA Syndrome)
Compromise of PICA
Lateral Medullary Ischemia
Nausea and Vomiting
Loss of Pain and Temperature in the Ipsilateral Face
Loss of Pain and Temperature Sensation in the Contralateral Limbs
Dysarthria and Dysphonia
Loss of Gag Reflex
Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome
Ipsilateral Ataxia and Dysmetria, as well as Dysdiadochokinesia
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4 mins
Ischemia and Vulnerable Tissues
MCA-ACA and MCA-PCA Interface
Subendocardium of Left Ventricle
Proximal Tubule
Thick Ascending Limbs of the Loop of Henle
Central Vein
Splenic Flexure
Rectosigmoid Junction
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2 mins

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