Ace Your Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medicine (MD/DO) Students

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Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology | Medicine (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Ophthalmologic Disorders
14 Picmonics to Learn | 30 mins

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Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Angiogenesis
Increased VEGF
Asymptomatic Until Late-stage
Fundoscopic Findings
Vitreous Hemorrhage
Retinal Detachment
Glaucoma
Findings of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Management
Laser Photocoagulation
Surgery
Bevacizumab
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2 mins
Retinoblastoma
Characteristics
Loss of Heterozygosity
Chromosome 13
Children
Presentation
Leukocoria
Strabismus
Vision Loss
Association
Osteosarcoma
Diagnosis
Genetic Testing
Management
Cryotherapy
Photocoagulation
Chemotherapy or Radiation
Surgery
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3 mins
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, darkened vision
Loss of central vision
Distortion of vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision assistive devices
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2 mins
Detached Retina
Assessment
Flashes of Light
Floaters
Curtain Like Shadow
Interventions
Eye Patch
Bed Rest
Surgical Emergency
Considerations
No Vigorous Activity
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2 mins
Cataract
Mechanism
Age-related
Assessment
No Pain
Cloudy Opaque Lens
Decreased Visual Acuity
Occurs Gradually
Treatment
Surgery
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1 min
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Etiologies
Hypercoagulability
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Clinical Features
Non-Ischemic
Mild to Moderate Vision Loss
Sparse Dot-blot and Flame Hemorrhages
Ischemic
Sudden, Painful Vision Loss
"Blood and Thunder" Appearance
Cotton Wool Spots
Papilledema
Interventions
Observation if Non-Ischemic
Laser Photocoagulation
VEGF Inhibitors
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3 mins
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
Etiology
Atherosclerosis
Atrial Fibrillation
Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis
Clinical Features
Sudden Painless Monocular Vision Loss
Descending Curtain
Fundoscopic Findings
Retinal Plaques
Grayish Retinal Discoloration
Cherry Red Spot on Macula
Diagnosis
Ultrasound
Interventions
Ocular Massage
Reduce Intraocular Pressure
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3 mins
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
ETIOLOGY
Multiple Sclerosis
Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
Mechanism
CN VI Nucleus
CN III Nucleus
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2 mins
Horner Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Sympathetic Disruption
Hypothalamus
Ciliospinal Center
Superior Cervical Ganglion
Ocular Muscles
"The Horny Triad" of symptoms
Ptosis
Anhidrosis
Miosis
Diagnosis
Diagnosis by Clinical Impression
MRI
Treatment
Treat Underlying Disorders
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4 mins
Hypertensive Retinopathy
Etiology
Chronic Hypertension
Fundoscopic Findings
Flame Hemorrhages
Arteriovenous Nicking
Retinal Microaneurysms
Cotton Wool Spots
Macular Star
Papilledema
Treatment
Lower Blood Pressure
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2 mins
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Characteristics
Hereditary Retinal Degeneration
Clinical Features
Night Blindness
Contrast and Color Defects
Tunnel Vision
Associations
Abetalipoproteinemia
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
Refsum Disease
Diagnosis
Bone Spicule-shaped Retinal Deposits
Considerations
Permanent Blindness
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2 mins
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
Characteristics
Mitochondrial Disease
Optic Atrophy
Adolescent Males
Symptoms/Findings
Painless Vision Loss
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1 min
Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
Characteristics
Increased Capillary Permeability and Leakage
Often Asymptomatic
Fundoscopic Findings
Retinal Microaneurysms
Flame-shaped Hemorrhages
Cotton Wool Spots
Hard Exudates
Macular Edema
Management
Treat Diabetes
Laser Photocoagulation
Bevacizumab
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3 mins
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Presentation
Subdural Hemorrhage
Retinal Hemorrhages
Bruising and Fractures
Diagnosis
CT of Head
Skeletal Survey
Treatment
Document Injuries
Notify Child Protective Services
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1 min

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