Ace Your Musculoskeletal (Orthopedics) Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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Musculoskeletal (Orthopedics) | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Musculoskeletal Pathology
17 Picmonics to Learn | 32 mins

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Aspirin Poisoning (Salicylism) Assessment
Early Symptoms
Nausea and Vomiting
Tinnitus
Confusion
Hyperventilation
Respiratory Alkalosis
Late Symptoms
Metabolic Acidosis
Coma
Hyperthermia
1 min
Achondroplasia
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant
Advanced Paternal Age
Most Common Cause of Dwarfism
Mutation of FGFR3 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3)
Defective Endochondral Ossification
Symptoms
Delayed Motor Milestones
Shortened Limbs with Normal Axial Skeleton Size
May Develop Hydrocephalus
Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis
Normal Life Span and Fertility
2 mins
Paget's Disease of Bone
Pathophysiology
Men > Age 40
Increased Osteoblast and Osteoclast activity
Mosaic Pattern
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Skull Diameter
Hearing Loss
Fractures
Bone Ache and Joint Pain
High Output Heart Failure
Diagnosis
Bone Scan
Normal Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Calcium
Elevated ALP
Treatment
Bisphosphonate
Calcitonin
2 mins
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Decreased Type I Collagen Production
Symptoms
Phenotypically Diverse
Brittle Bone Disease
Fractures from Minimal Trauma
Confused with Child Abuse
Hearing Loss
Dental Imperfections
Blue Sclera
1 min
Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease)
Pathophysiology
Defective Osteoclast Resorption
Carbonic Anhydrase II Mutation
Lack of Acidic Environment
Symptoms
Fractures
Nerve Palsies
Diagnosis
Myelophthisic Anemia
Erlenmeyer Flask Bones
Normal ALP and PTH
Normal Calcium and Phosphorus
Bone-in-bone Appearance
Treatment
Bone Marrow Transplant
2 mins
Compartment Syndrome Assessment
Mechanism
Trauma
Increased Pressure
Compressed Nerves and Blood Vessels
Assessment
1 or more of 6 P's
Considerations
May take Days to develop
Early Detection
Ischemia
Damage often Irreversible
1 min
Salter-Harris Fracture Classification
SMACK
Slipped Across Physis (Type 1)
Metaphysis and Physis (Type 2)
Articular-Epiphyseal (Type 3)
Complete Metaphysis and Epiphysis (Type 4)
Krushed Physis (Type 5)
2 mins
Herniated Disc (Nucleus Pulposus)
Cause/Mechanism
Spine Trauma
Natural Degeneration
Spinal Stenosis
Assessment
Pain
Weakness
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Interventions
Brace
Medications
Outpatient Procedures
Surgery
2 mins
Muscular Dystrophy
Mechanism
X-linked Recessive
Signs and Symptoms
Muscle Weakness
Motor Problems
Gower Sign
Large Calves
Waddling Gait
Loss of Ambulation
Consideration
Cardiac and Respiratory Failure
2 mins
Myotonic Dystrophy
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CTG
Signs and Symptoms
Facial Muscle Weakness
Frontal Balding
Sustained Grip
Conduction Defects
Cataracts
Selective Atrophy of Type 1 Fibers
Testicular Atrophy
2 mins
Marfan Syndrome
Mechanism
Fibrillin-1 Mutation
Symptoms
Autosomal Dominant
Tall
Arachnodactyly
Pectus Excavatum
Hypermobile Joints
Aortic Aneurysm And Dissection
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Subluxation of Lens (Superior)
2 mins
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Types
Types
Types 1 and 2 - Classical
Type V Collagen Mutation
Joints and Skin
Type 3 - Hypermobility
Most Common
Tenascin X Deficiency
Joint Instability
Type 4 - Vascular
Type III Collagen Mutation
Vascular and Organ Rupture
2 mins
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Disease
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy
More Common in Women
Endomysial Inflammation with CD8+ Cells (Polymyositis)
Perimysial Inflammation with CD4+ Cells (Dermatomyositis)
Signs and Symptoms (Both)
Symmetric Proximal Muscle Weakness
Dysphagia
Lung and Cardiac Involvement
Signs and Symptoms (Dermatomyositis)
Malar Rash
Shawl-like Shoulder Rash
Gottron Papules on Knuckles
Heliotrope Rash
3 mins
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Disease
Pathophysiology
Faulty Collagen Synthesis
Autosomal Dominant or Recessive
Various Severities
Signs and Symptoms
Hypermobile Joints
Hyperextensible Skin
Easy Bruising/Bleeding
Berry (Saccular) Aneurysm
Considerations
Beighton Criteria
2 mins
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Increased CK (CPK)
Increased Aldolase
Anti-JO-1 Antibody
Anti-SRP Antibody
Antinuclear Antibody
Abnormal EMG
Biopsy
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Methotrexate
Azathioprine
Treatment For Resistant Disease
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Cyclophosphamide
Rituximab
Calcineurin Inhibitors
2 mins
Types of Fractures
Nondisplaced
Displaced
Incomplete
Complete
Closed
Open
Direction of Fracture Line
2 mins
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Presentation
Subdural Hemorrhage
Retinal Hemorrhages
Bruising and Fractures
Diagnosis
CT of Head
Skeletal Survey
Treatment
Document Injuries
Notify Child Protective Services
1 min

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