Ace Your Genitourinary (Renal) System Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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Genitourinary (Renal) System | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Renal Disorders
15 Picmonics to Learn | 37 mins
Prerenal Acute Kidney Injury Pathophysiology and Presentation
Pathophysiology
Decreased Renal Perfusion
Decreased GFR
Increased Sodium and Water Reabsorption
Presentation
Edema
Dyspnea
Hypotension with Tachycardia
Altered Mental Status
Oliguria
Etiologies
NSAIDs
Renal Artery Stenosis
ACE Inhibitors
2 mins
Renal Osteodystrophy
Pathophysiology
Chronic Kidney Disease
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperphosphatemia
Hypocalcemia
Decreased Calcitriol
Clinical Features
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica
Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia
Management
Treating Underlying Disorder
2 mins
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 2/2)
Struvite
Struvite (Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate)
Urinary Tract Infections
"Coffin Lid" Appearance
Radiopaque
Increased Urine pH
Calcium Phosphate
Calcium Phosphate
Hypercalcemia
Wedge-shaped Prisms
Radiopaque
Increased Urine pH
2 mins
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 1/2)
Calcium Oxalate
Calcium Oxalate
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Ethylene Glycol
Vitamin C
"Dumbbell", Bipyramidal, or Octahedral-shaped
Radiopaque
Uric Acid
Uric Acid
Gout
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Rhomboidal, Rosette, or Needle-shaped
Radiolucent
Decreased Urine pH
2 mins
Nephrolithiasis Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
Urinalysis with Culture
Noncontrast CT
Ultrasound
Management
< 10 mm
Supportive Care
10-20 mm
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Ureteroscopy
> 20 mm
Surgery
2 mins
Indications for Urgent Dialysis (AEIOU)
Signs and Symptoms
AEIOU Mnemonic
Acidosis
pH < 7.1
Electrolyte Imbalances
Symptomatic Hyperkalemia
> 6.5 mEq/L
Ingestion
Overload (Volume)
Uremia
Encephalitis
Pericarditis
2 mins
Casts in Urine (Differential Diagnosis)
Characteristics
RBC Casts
Glomerular Disease
WBC Casts
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute Pyelonephritis
Fatty Casts
Maltese Cross Sign
Nephrotic Syndrome
Granular Muddy Brown Casts
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
Waxy Casts
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) (Chronic Renal Failure)
Hyaline Casts
Non-Specific
2 mins
Fanconi Syndrome Characteristics
Pathophysiology
Resorption Defect in Proximal Tubule
Signs and Symptoms
Hypophosphatemia
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Hypokalemia
Metabolic Acidosis
Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis
Treatment
Treat Underlying Disorder
Bicarbonate
1 min
Fanconi Syndrome Causes
Hereditary Causes
Cystinosis
Dent's Disease
Wilson's Disease
Oculocerebrorenal (Lowe) Syndrome
Galactosemia
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
Glycogen Storage Diseases
Tyrosinemia
Acquired and Medication Causes
Tenofovir
Heavy Metals
Expired Tetracyclines
Cisplatin
Gentamycin (Aminoglycosides)
Valproate Sodium
Multiple Myeloma
2 mins
Syndrome Of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (SAME)
Pathophysiology
11 Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Elevated Cortisol
Low Renin
Low Aldosterone 
Causes
Autosomal-Recessive
Licorice (glycyrrhetinic acid) Ingestion
Signs & Symptoms
Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Metabolic Alkalosis
Treatment
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
4 mins
Potter Sequence
PATHOGENESIS
Oligohydramnios
clinical findings
Limb Deformities
Facial Anomalies
Pulmonary Hypoplasia (Most Common Cause of Death)
Etiologies
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD)
Posterior Urethral Valves
Chronic Placental Insufficiency
Bilateral Renal Agenesis
3 mins
Liddle Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Collecting Duct
Gain of Function Mutation in Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC)
Excess Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
Clinical Features
Decreased Renin
Decreased Aldosterone
Hypertension with Hypokalemia
Metabolic Alkalosis
Pseudohyperaldosteronism
Treatment
Amiloride and Triamterene
3 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Diagnosis and Management
Diagnosis
Urinalysis
CT Urography
Cystoscopy with Biopsy
Management
Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy
2 mins
Bartter Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
Defective NKCC Cotransporter
Decreased Na+ Reabsorption
Decreased Ca2+ Reabsorption
Increased Aldosterone
Clinical Features
Hypovolemia
Polyuria and Polydipsia
Metabolic Alkalosis
Mimics Loop Diuretics
Nephrolithiasis
Treatment
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
4 mins
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Mutations in PKD1/2
Cystic Enlargement of Renal Tubules
Clinical Features
Chronic Kidney Disease
Hypertension 
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Hepatic Cysts
Berry (Saccular) Aneurysms
3 mins

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