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Gastrointestinal System | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid

Gastrointestinal Basics
13 Picmonics to Learn | 23 mins

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GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
1 min
Oral Cavity
Characteristics
Mouth
Mechanical Digestion
Salivary Amylase Begins Carbohydrate Breakdown
Lingual Lipase Begins Lipid Breakdown
Esophagus
Bolus
Peristalsis
1 min
Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
2 mins
Small Intestine Absorption
Characteristics
Carbohydrates Undergo Active Transport
Amino Acids Undergo Active Transport
Small Lipids Undergo Passive Diffusion
Epithelial Cells
Intestinal Capillaries
Hepatic Portal Transports Nutrients
Liver
Large Lipids Transported as Chylomicrons
Lacteals Transport Chylomicrons
2 mins
Small Intestine Digestion
Brush border enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes are secreted via a Duct
Pancreas secretes bicarbonate
Brush Border activates Pancreatic Trypsin
Trypsin activates Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin digest Proteins
Gallbladder Releases Bile
Pancreatic Lipase breaks down Lipids
Goblet cells secrete mucus
Pancreatic Amylase breaks down Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
Digestion occurs in the Duodenum
2 mins
Large Intestine
Characteristics
Colon
Electrolyte Reabsorption
Water Reabsorption
Microflora Produce Vitamins
Rectum Stores Feces
1 min
Midgut Blood Supply and Innervation
Distal Duodenum
Ligament of Treitz
To the Proximal 2/3 of Transverse Colon
Supply
Vagus Nerve
Superior Mesenteric Artery
2 mins
Inguinal Canal
2MALT
2 Muscles Form the Roof
Internal Oblique
Transverse Abdominus Muscle
2 Aponeuroses Form the Anterior Wall
External and Internal Abdominal Oblique Aponeuroses
2 Ligaments Form Floor
Lacunar Ligament
Inguinal Ligament
2 T's Form the Posterior Wall
Transversalis Fascia
Conjoint Tendon
Deep Ring is Defect in Transversalis Fascia
Superficial Ring is Formed by Defect in the External Abdominal Oblique Aponeurosis
2 mins
Foregut Blood Supply and Innervation
Foregut Structures
Pharynx
Lower Esophagus
Proximal Duodenum
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Spleen
Supply
Vagus Nerve
Celiac Artery
3 mins
Hindgut Blood Supply and Innervation
Distal 1/3 of Transverse Colon
Upper Rectum
Pectinate Line
Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Pelvic Plexus
2 mins
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Secreted by I Cells
Duodenum and Jejunum
Physiology
Increase Pancreatic Secretions
Increase Gallbladder Contraction
Induce Relaxation of Sphincter of Oddi
Decrease Gastric Emptying
Regulation
Increased by Fatty Acids and Amino Acids
1 min
Bilirubin Metabolism Overview
Blood
Unconjugated Bilirubin
Bound to Albumin
Heme
Red Blood Cells
Macrophages
Liver
Conjugated Bilirubin
Secreted into Bile
Bowel
Urobilinogen
Eliminated in Feces
Eliminated in Urine
Enterohepatic Circulation
3 mins

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