Ace Your Cardiovascular System Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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Cardiovascular System Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Heart Malformations
10 Picmonics to Learn | 19 mins

Next
Right to Left Heart Shunts
The 5 Ts
Truncus Arteriosus
Transposition of the Great Vessels
Tricuspid Atresia
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
Associations
Cyanosis at Birth
May Require PDA
1 min
Left-to-Right Heart Shunts
The 3 Ds
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
PDA
Associations
Later Cyanosis
Clubbing
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
1 min
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
Pathophysiology
Hole in Septum between the Atria
Symptoms
Often Asymptomatic
Wide and Fixed Split S2
Cyanosis and Dyspnea
Easily Fatigued
Diagnosis
Chest X-ray shows Increased Pulmonary Vascular Markings
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Surgery if CHF as Child
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Most Close Spontaneously
2 mins
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Pathophysiology
Opening at Intraventricular Septum
Most Common Congenital Heart lesion
Symptoms
High-pitched Holosystolic Murmer (over left sternal border)
Dyspnea and Respiratory Distress
Loud Pulmonic S2
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Small VSDs Close Spontaneously
Large VSD requires Surgery
Complications
Endocarditis
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
CHF
2 mins
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Continuous
Machine like murmur
Often Due to Congenital Rubella
Prematurity
1 min
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus
Common Arterial Trunk
Single Trunk Emerges from Both Ventricles
Symptoms
Cyanosis
Pulmonary Congestion
Heart Failure
Single S2 Sound
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Chest X-ray
Treatment
Early Surgical Correction
Avoids Pulmonary Hypertension
2 mins
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Features
Blue Baby Syndrome
Mechanism
PROVe Acronym
Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Overriding Aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Diagnosis and Treatment
Boot-Shaped Heart
Squatting for Tet Spells
Surgery
1 min
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
Pathophysiology
Pulmonary Veins Do Not Connect to Left Atrium
Oxygenated Blood Return to Right Atrium
Incompatible with Life without a Shunt
With Obstruction
Vessel Enters at an Acute Angle
Severe Cyanosis
Pulmonary Edema
Without Obstruction
Delayed Manifestation (1 or 2 years)
Right Heart Failure
Chest X-ray Shows "Snowman"
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Surgical Correction
2 mins
Transposition of Great Vessels
Pathophysiology
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation are in Parallel
Incompatible with Life without a Shunt
Symptoms
Severe Cyanosis at Birth
Single S2 sound
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Chest X-ray shows "Egg-shaped Silhouette"
Treatment
Prostaglandin
Avoid NSAIDs
Surgical Correction
Balloon Atrial Septostomy
2 mins
Coarctation of The Aorta
Pathophysiology
Constriction of a Portion of Aorta
Turner Syndrome
Symptoms
Asymptomatic Hypertension
BP Higher in Upper Extremities, Right Arm
CHF
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Cardiac Catheterization
3 Sign on Chest X-Ray
Rib Notching
Treatment
Surgical Correction
2 mins

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