Rubella is an RNA virus that can cause congenital TORCH infection. TORCH infections are infections that are acquired in utero or during the birthing process. Mothers who contract the disease typically have symptoms of rash, lymphadenopathy, and arthritis. Nonspecific signs common to many TORCH infections include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and thrombocytopenia. The classic triad of neonatal manifestations include patent ductus arteriosus or pulmonary artery hypoplasia, cataracts, and deafness. Infants can also display a blueberry muffin rash and glaucoma. Due to its serious complications, all pregnant women get Rubella titers as part of their routine prenatal care.
Nonspecific signs common to many torch infections include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and thrombocytopenia.
Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart disorder in which a neonate's ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth. Common causes include congenital rubella or prematurity, and if left uncorrected, can lead to pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome.
Pulmonary artery hypoplasia refers to underdevelopment or incomplete development of the pulmonary artery and can be a neonatal manifestation of congenital rubella infection.
Cataracts are clouding of the lens of the eye and are a common finding in neonatal rubella infection.
Neurosensory hearing loss is a common finding in neonatal rubella infection.
The term blueberry muffin rash was initially used to describe generalized hemorrhagic purpuric cutaneous manifestations observed in infants with congenital rubella infection. Classically, this rash presents with non blanching, blue red macules or dome shaped papules.
Glaucoma is associated with increased pressure in the eye which can lead to damage of the optic nerve and visual field loss. Glaucoma can be associated with neonatal rubella infection.
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