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Vygotsky's Sociohistorical Theory

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Vygotsky's Sociohistorical Theory

V-goat-ski Socialist
Vygotsky's sociohistorical theory leans on the conceptualization that the basis of intelligence comes from social and language-based factors. It considers that each person is responsible for the progress of society as a whole, and that sharing knowledge increases the overall cognitive development of all members in a society. It compares the level of actual development to the level of potential development to describe the zone of proximal development. This is the difference in intelligence achieved when one works by themself, versus how a person can do with the help of another.
Each Person is Responsible for the Progress of the Whole Society
An individual helping society make progress

Vygotsky proposed that each person is responsible for the progress of the whole society, with a focus on social cooperation and support.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
ZPD zone

He described the zone of proximal development as the difference between the level of actual development and the level of potential development. In essence, the ZPD shows the difference in intelligence between what the person can do without help and what the person can do with help from another adult.

Level of Actual Development
Level actually reached alone

What people can do on their own is considered the level of actual development. This is what intelligence tests usually measure.

Level of Potential Development
Level potentially reached with help

The level of potential development is what a person can do with the help from another person.


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