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Science | College School Study Aid

11 Picmonics to Learn | 17 mins
Cells and the Nucleus
Cells are the smallest unit of life
Cells are the building blocks of all life
The nucleus is the "brain" of the cell
The nucleus holds DNA
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1 min
Purpose of Cell Division
Cells divide to make reproductive cells (sperm and eggs)
Reproductive cell division produces unique cells, not clones
New reproductive cells have only one set of chromosomes (half)
Reproductive cells can combine and share a full set of chromosomes
Most cell division produces exact clones with full sets of chromosomes
Cells divide for organism repair
Cells divide for organism growth
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1 min
Chromosome and DNA
DNA is the blueprint for building an organism
A chromosome is packed with DNA
Chromosomes exist in pairs
Humans have 23 chromosome pairs
Chromosomes are found in the nucleus
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1 min
Genes and Alleles
A gene is a fragment of DNA that codes for a trait (hair color)
An allele is a form of a gene that codes for a specific characteristic (brown hair)
Half of a child's genes and alleles come from each parent
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1 min
Dominant vs. Recessive
Dominant allele dominates over recessive allele
If both alleles are present the dominant phenotype is expressed
The recessive phenotype is expressed only with two recessive alleles
Examples of dominant characteristics are widow's peak, dark hair, and dark eyes
Examples of recessive characteristics are straight hairline, light hair, and light eyes
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2 mins
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
Description of Genotypes
Homozygous has 2 of the same allele (AA or aa)
Homozygous dominant is AA
Homozygous Recessive is aa
Heterozygous has 2 different alleles (Aa)
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2 mins
Genotype vs. Phenotype
Genotype is the genetic makeup
Genotype is coded in DNA
Genotype is shown as 2 letters that represent 2 alleles
Genotype is the code for phenotype
Phenotype is physical appearance of organism
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1 min
Passing characteristics from parent to offspring
Those characteristics can be similar to or different from parents
Half of the genes come from the father
Half of the genes come from mother
Recessive characteristics not expressed in either parent can be expressed in a child
Some phenotypes are more favorable than others in Natural Selection
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2 mins
Hybrid Punnett Square
Gregor Mendel
Two Hybrid Parents Mate
3 children have the same phenotype
1 child has a different phenotype
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1 min
Blood Types
Allele A is Dominant
Allele B is Dominant
Allele O is Recessive
Genotypes AA and AO have Type A Blood
Genotypes BB and BO have Type B Blood
Genotype AB is co-dominant and has Type AB Blood
Genotype OO Results in Type O Blood
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2 mins
Charles Darwin
From England
Traveled to the galapagos islands
Developed the theory of Natural Selection
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1 min

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